This machine, like a baker’s cart, is the kind of wheel carriage which is most common in the country, and such as even the high officers of state ride in, when performing land journies in bad weather, and the driver invariably sits on the shaft in the aukward manner here represented. They have no springs, nor any seat in the inside, the persons using them always sitting cross-legged on a cushion at the bottom. In these carts the gentlemen of Lord Macartney’s embassy who had not horses, were accommodated, over a stone pavement full of rutts and holes. When ladies use them, a bamboo screen is let down in front to prevent their being stared at by passengers, and on each side, the light is admitted through a square hole just large enough for a person’s head.
Of the Tartar horse another specimen has been given in this work. This represents a Tartar dragoon armed with the common instruments, the bow, and a short sabre. This corps is probably of little use beyond that of carrying dispatches, and assisting in the imperial hunts in the forests of Tartary. All the cavalry that were seen by the British Embassy had a mean, irregular, and most unsoldierlike appearance.
The annexed is a portrait of a true Tartar horse, which seems to be pretty much of the same breed as those of the Cossacks. The Chinese horses are precisely of the same kind. In fact, no pains whatever appear to be taken either for improving the breed, or by attention to their food, cleanliness, or regular exercise, to increase the size, strength, or spirit of the animal. A currycomb, or any substitute for it, is unknown in China. Indeed horses are not much in use. Wherever the nature of the country admits of canals or navigable rivers, travelling and conveyance of every kind are principally performed on the water.
A Pack Horse
Fight between a Horse and Dogs.
From a Manuscript in the British Museum (Thirteenth Century).
The Rubbish Carter
Technologically there are several varieties of “rubbish,” or rather “dirt,” for such appears to be the generic term, of which “rubbish” is strictly a species. Dirt, according to the understanding among the rubbish-carters, would seem to consist of any solid earthy matter, which is of an useless or refuse character. This dirt the trade divides into two distinct kinds, viz.:—
1. “Soft dirt,” or refuse clay (of which “dry dirt,” or refuse soil or mould, is a variety).
2. “Hard-dirt,” or “hard-core,” consisting of the refuse bricks, chimney-pots, slates, &c., when a house is pulled down, as well as the broken bottles, pans, pots, or crocks, and oyster-shells, &c., which form part of the contents of the dustman’s cart.
Skeleton of the Horse
1.Skull, or skeleton of the head.
2.Cervical vertebræ or neck bones.
3.Dorsal vertebræ or back bones.
4.Lumbar vertebræ or loin bones.
5.Sacral vertebræ or rump bones.
6.Coccygeal vertebræ or tail bones.
7.Pelvic or hip bones.
8.Sternum or breast bone.
10.Scapula or shoulder blade.
11.Humerus or shoulder bone.
12.Radius or bone of the fore-arm.
13.Ulna or bone of the fore-arm.
14.Carpus or bones of the knee.
15.Os Melacarpi Magnus, metacarpal, or cannon bone.
16.Ossa Melacarpi Parva, or splint bones.
17.Proximal Phalanx, os suffraginis, or large pastern bone.
18.Great Sesamoid Bones.
19.Medium Phalanx, os coronæ, or small pastern bone.
20.Distal Phalanx, os pedis, or coffin bone.
21.Os Naviculare, small sesamoid, or shuttle bone.
22.Femur, or thigh bone.
23.Patella, or stifle bone.
24.Tibia, or leg bone.
25.Fibula. (This bone is little developed in the horse.)
26.Tarsus or hock bones.
27.Metatarsus, or os metatarsi magnus.
28.Ossa Metatarsi Parva, or splint bones of the hind leg.
Names of joints placed according to numbers.
I. Shoulder Joint.
II. Elbow Joint.
III.Carpus or knee joint.
IX.Tarsus or hock joint.
Anatomy of the Foot.—This illustration represents the foot of a horse sawed from above the fetlock down through the center of the foot. It shows the structure of the foot, the name of each part being given according to number.
1. Lower end of large metacarpal, or cannon bone.
2. Bursa, which secretes the joint oil that lubricates the place where the tendon, or cord, on the front of the leg passes down over the front of the fetlock joint. This is important as it sometimes gets injured and becomes enlarged. It is then called a bursal enlargement, and is of the same nature as a wind gall.
3. Fetlock joint.
4. Os suffraginis, or large pastern bone.
5. Pastern joint. This joint is important; when diseased it is the seat of a high ringbone.
6. Os coronae or small pastern bone.
7. Coffin joint. This joint is important, for when it is diseased it is known as a low ringbone.
8. Wall of the hoof.
9. Os pedis, or coffin bone.
10. Sensitive wall, or quick of the foot.
11. Sensitive sole, or quick of the foot.
12. Frog of the foot, or horney frog.
13. Plantar cushion, or fatty frog.
14. Navicular bone. This is also important, for when diseased it is the seat of navicular, or coffin joint lameness.
15. Back tendons below the fetlock.
16. Sesamoid, or fetlock bones.
18. Back tendons above the fetlock.
Digestive Apparatus of the Horse
6. Stomach (left sac).
8. Liver (upper extremity).
9. Great colon.
11. Small intestine.
12. Floating colon.
15. Left kidney and ureter.
a. Hard palate.
c. Soft palate.
e. Pulmonary artery (divided).
g. Posterior aorta.