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- Peripatus novæ zealandiæ
A, Peripatus novæ zealandiæ.—After Sedgwick, from Lang. B, Peripatus capensis, side view, enlarged about twice the natural size.—After Moseley, from Balfour. C, Anatomy of Peripatus capensis. The enteric canal behind the pharynx has been removed. g, brain; a, antenna; op, oral or slime papillæ; sd, slime gland; sr, slime reservoir, which at the same time acts as a duct to the gland; so4, so5, so6, so9, nephridia of the 4th, 5th, 6th, and 9th pairs of limbs; cd, elongated coxal gland of the last pair of feet; go, genital aperture; an, anus; ph, pharynx; n, longitudinal trunk of the nervous system.—After Balfour, from Lang. D, Portion of the body of Peripatus capensis opened to show the scattered tufts of tracheæ (tr); v, v, ventral nerve cords.—After Moseley.
- Restoration of under side of a trilobite
Restoration of under side of a trilobite (Triarthrus becki), the trunk limbs bearing small triangular respiratory lobes or gills.—After Beecher.
- Prehistoric carving of the Mammoth
Incised upon a piece of mammoth ivory, are outlines of the mammoth itself. The original, rather more than nine inches in length, is at Paris in the museum of the Jardin des plantes.
- Group of reindeer drawn upon a piece of slate
Group of reindeer drawn upon a piece of slate
- Prehistoric carving
In short, the prehistoric carvings are from the hands of men who were neither beginners nor blunderers in their art. The practised skill of a modern wood engraver would scarcely exceed in firmness and decision, nor in evident rapidity of execution, the outline of the animals in the example which is here engraved.
- Phororhacos, a Patagonian Giant of the Miocene
Phororhacos, a Patagonian Giant of the Miocene From a Drawing by Charles R. Knight Most recent in point of discovery, but oldest in point of time, are the giant birds from Patagonia, which are burdened with the name of Phororhacidæ, a name that originated in an error, although the error may well be excused. The first fragment of one of these great birds to come to light was a portion of the lower jaw, and this was so massive, so un-bird-like, that the finder dubbed it Phororhacos, and so it must remain.
- Skeleton of a Radiolarian Very Greatly Enlarged
The very rocks themselves may consist largely of fossils; chalk, for example, is mainly made up of the disintegrated shells of simple marine animals called foraminifers, and the beautiful flint-like "skeletons" of other small creatures termed radiolarians, minute as they are, have contributed extensively to the formation of some strata.
- Cephalaspis and Loricaria, an Ancient and a Modern Armored Fish
Still higher up we come upon the abundant remains of numerous small fish-like animals, more or less completely clad in bony armor, indicating that they lived in troublous times when there was literally a fight for existence and only such as were well armed or well protected could hope to survive. A parallel case exists to-day in some of the rivers of South America, where the little cat-fishes would possibly be eaten out of existence but for the fact that they are covered—some of them very completely—with plate-armor that enables them to defy their enemies, or renders them such poor eating as not to be worth the taking. The arrangement of the plates or scales in the living Loricaria is very suggestive of the series of bony rings covering the body of the ancient Cephalaspis, only the latter, so far as we know, had no side-fins; but the creatures are in no wise related, and the similarity is in appearance only.
- Pterichthys, the Wing Fish
erichthys, the wing fish, was another small, quaint, armor-clad creature, whose fossilized remains were taken for those of a crab, and once described as belonging to a beetle. Certainly the buckler of this fish, which is the part most often preserved, with its jointed, bony arms, looks to the untrained eye far more like some strange crustacean than a fish, and even naturalists have pictured the animal as crawling over the bare sands by means of those same arms. These fishes and their allies were once the dominant type of life, and must have abounded in favored localities, for in places are great deposits of their protective shields jumbled together in a confused mass, and, save that they have hardened into stone, lying just as they were washed up on the ancient beach ages ago. How abundant they were may be gathered from the fact that it is believed their bodies helped consolidate portions of the strata of the English Old Red Sandstone.
- Where a Dinosaur Sat Down
In the light of our present knowledge we are able to read many things in these tracks that were formerly more or less obscure, and to see in them a complete verification of Dr. Deane's suspicion that they were not made by birds. We see clearly that the long tracks called Anomœpus, with their accompanying short fore feet, mark where some Dinosaur squatted down to rest or progressed slowly on all-fours, as does the kangaroo when feeding quietly; and we interpret the curious heart-shaped depression sometimes seen back of the feet, not as the mark of a stubby tail, but as made by the ends of the slender pubes, bones that help form the hip-joints. Then, too, the mark of the inner, or short first, toe, is often very evident, although it was a long time before the bones of this toe were actually found, and many of the Dinosaurs now known to have four toes were supposed to have but three.
- The Track of a Three-toed Dinosaur
The Track of a Three-toed Dinosaur
- A Great Sea Lizard Tylosaurus Dyspelo
The finest Mosasaur skeleton ever discovered, an almost complete skeleton of Tylosaurus dyspelor, 29 feet in length, may be seen at the head of the staircase leading to the Hall of Paleontology, in the American Museum of Natural History, New York. Another good specimen may be seen in the Yale University Museum, which probably has the largest collection of Mosasaurs in existence.
- Koch's Hydrarchus. Composed of Portions of the Skeletons of Several Zeuglodons
One might think that a creature sixty or seventy feet long was amply long enough, but Dr. Albert Koch thought otherwise, and did with Zeuglodon as, later on, he did with the Mastodon, combining the vertebræ of several individuals until he had a monster 114 feet long! This he exhibited in Europe under the name of Hydrarchus, or water king, finally disposing of the composite creature to the Museum of Dresden, where it was promptly reduced to its proper dimensions. The natural make-up of Zeuglodon is sufficiently composite without any aid from man, for the head and paddles are not unlike those of a seal, the ribs are like those of a manatee, and the shoulder blades are precisely like those of a whale, while the vertebræ are different from those of any other animal, even its own cousin and lesser contemporary Dorudon
- A Tooth of Zeuglodon, One of the 'Yoke Teeth,' from which it derives the name
The best Zeuglodon, the first to show the vestigial hind legs and to make clear other portions of the structure, is in the United States National Museum
- Nature's Four Methods of Making a Wing - Bat, Pteryodactyl, Archæopteryx, and Modern Bird
Nature's Four Methods of Making a Wing - Bat, Pteryodactyl, Archæopteryx, and Modern Bird
- Hesperornis, the Great Toothed Diver
- Young Hoactzins
- Thespesius, a Common Herbivorous Dinosaur of the Cretaceous
- A Hind Leg of the Great Brontosaurus, the Largest of the Dinosaurs
- A Single Vertebra of Brontosaurus
- Skeleton of Triceratops
- The Horned Ceratosaurus, a Carnivorous Dinosaur
- Skull of Ceratosaurus
- Skull of Phororhacos Compared with that of the Race-horse Lexington
- Leg of a Horse Compared with that of the Giant Moa
- The Three Giants, Phororhacos, Moa, Ostrich
- Skeleton of the Modern Horse and of His Eocene Ancestor
- The Development of the Horse
- Skeleton of the Mammoth in the Royal Museum of St. Petersburg
- The Mammoth as Engraved by a Primitive Artist on a Piece of Mammoth Tusk
- Tooth of Mastodon and of Mammoth
- The Missourium of Koch, from a Tracing of the Figure Illustrating Koch's Description
- The Mastodon
- Bronze Age
The British were able to produce a certain coarse material from the flax which they had but lately learnt to grow, so by now they were not wholly dependent on the skins of animals for clothing.
- The gigantic three-horned Reptile, Triceratops
The gigantic three-horned Reptile, Triceratops, as large as an Elephant, found in Jurassic strata in North America. A model of the skeleton may be seen in the Natural History Museum in London.
- The oldest fossil fish known—discovered in the Upper Silurian strata of Scotland, and named Birkenia by Professor Traquair
The oldest fossil fish known—discovered in the Upper Silurian strata of Scotland, and named Birkenia by Professor Traquair.
- Drawing of the skull and lower jaw of the Meritherium, discovered by Dr. Andrews in the Upper Eocene of the Fayum Desert.
Drawing of the skull and lower jaw of the Meritherium, discovered by Dr. Andrews in the Upper Eocene of the Fayum Desert. The shape of the skull and proportions of face and jaw are like those of an ordinary hoofed mammal such as the pig; but the cheek-teeth are similar to those of the Mastodon, and whilst the full complement of teeth is present in the front of the upper jaw, we can distinguish the big tusk-like incisor which alone survives on each side in Palæomastodon, Mastodon, and the elephants, as the great pair of tusks.
- Neolithic or New Stone Age Man
The Neolithic or New Stone Age: Circa 10,000 B.C. The people of this period constituted a fifth race of mankind, of moderate stature and slender proportions. Those who resided on the western side of the island now known as Great Britain were dark, and of the Iberian type. Those on the eastern side were fair, and very like the Gauls.
- Cro Magnon
Circa 35,000-15,000 B.C. This date, 35,000 B.C., is given as the end of the Early Paleolithic Age and beginning of the Late Paleolithic Age. A fourth race, the Cro Magnon or " True Man " Type, lived during this period, and was akin to the Eskimo of the present day. These people occupied the cave-dwellings of their predecessors, but led a much freer life in the open.
A second race of Subman, named " Eoanthropos " or " Dawn Man," was in existence (circa) 110,000 B.C. Their only weapons were branches torn from the trees
- Pithecanthropos Erectus
The first race of Man (circa 550,000 B.c.) is called the "Pithecanthropos Erectus," or Ape Man. They were powerfully built individuals, with low foreheads, prominent bony ridges above the eyes, and retreating chins. Their forearms were heavy and clumsy, their thigh-bones bent and their shin-bones short, so they must have been bow-legged and awkward in gait. This type of human being became differentiated from animals because development of the faculty of primitive speech enabled them to sustain thought and created memory.
- Primitive Bread Making
Take, for instance, the art of making bread, which was probably practised by the earlier races in some such manner as that represented in the figure. , wherein is depicted the process employed by certain savage tribes at the present day. Rude as the process is—and it consist only in spreading the paste, made of flour and water, on a series of flat stones which have been heated in a fire—its employment betoken the knowledge of a certain number of the facts of nature. It required the experience of perhaps many ages to impart the knowledge of other fads by which the originally .rude process became improved. This progress of an art, from its rudest to its more advanced state, doe not necessarily imply an advance in science.
- Primitive Sledge
An early primitive sledge
- Mammoth Hunt
To pierce the skin of one of the large animals, such as a mastodon or mammoth, the hunters had to be close to the powerful beast. They hurled or jabbed their spears at the animal, and tried to confuse and immobilize their prey. Perhaps several hunters surrounded an isolated animal waving their arms and distracting it while one or two others speared it. If the animal was wounded, the hunters would have tracked it until it became very weak or went to water to drink. Even a mastodon, wounded and exhausted, or mired in the mud of a shallow lake, would have been relatively easy game for a small group of experienced hunters.
- A hunter using an atlatl
Dogs may have been kept as pets, and may have helped in hunting. Meso-Indians developed many new hunting and fishing techniques. They used fishhooks, traps, and nets for catching fish and other small animals, and they used a new weapon called the atlatl (pronounced at′lat′l) to help kill their most important prey, deer. An atlatl was made from a flattish, two-foot long piece of wood and was used as a spear-thrower. It had a hook, made of bone or antler, attached on one end and a hand grip carved on the other end. A stone, clay, or shell weight was sometimes attached toward the hooked end to increase the force of the throw, or perhaps only for decoration. A spear was rested on the atlatl with the end of the spear shaft inserted into the atlatl hook. The hunter held the atlatl grip and the middle of the spear in the same hand, then he hurled the spear from the atlatl. The atlatl acted as an extension of his arm, giving extra power and accuracy to the throw.
- Prehistoric Whistle
A musical relic has recently been exhumed in the department of Dordogne in France, which was constructed in an age when the fauna of France included the reindeer, the rhinoceros, and the mammoth, the hyæna, the bear, and the cave-lion. It is a small bone somewhat less than two inches in length, in which is a hole, evidently bored by means of one of the little flint knives which men used before acquaintance with the employment of metal for tools and weapons. Many of these flints were found in the same place with the bones. Only about half a dozen of the bones, of which a considerable number have been exhumed, possess the artificial hole.
- Pariasaurus - An Extinct Vegetarian Triassic Reptile
Total length about 9 feet. (Remains found in Cape Colony, South Africa.)
- Triceratops - A Huge Extinct Reptile
(From remains found in Cretaceous strata of Wyoming, U.S.A.) This Dinosaur, about the size of a large rhinoceros, had a huge three-horned skull with a remarkable bony collar over the neck. But, as in many other cases, its brain was so small that it could have passed down the spinal canal in which the spinal cord lies. Perhaps this partly accounts for the extinction of giant reptiles.
- Skeleton of an Extinct Flightless Toothed Bird, Hesperornis
The bird was five or six feet high, something like a swimming ostrich, with a very powerful leg but only a vestige of a wing. There were sharp teeth in a groove. The modern divers come nearest to this ancient type.
- The Skull and Brain-Case of Pithecanthropus
The java ape-man, as restored. By J. H. Mcgregor from the scanty remains The restoration shows the low, retreating forehead and the prominent eyebrow ridges.
- A Mammoth Drawn on the Wall of the Font-de-Gaume Cavern
The mammoth age was in the Middle Pleistocene, while Neanderthal Men still flourished, probably far over 30,000 years ago.
- A Grazing Bison, Delicately and Carefully Drawn, Engraved on a Wall of the Altamira Cave, Northern Spain
This was the work of a Reindeer Man or Cromagnard, in the Upper or Post-Glacial Pleistocene, perhaps 25,000 years ago. Firelight must have been used in making these cave drawings and engravings.
A section through the Pearly Nautilus, Nautilus pompilius, common from Malay to Fiji. The shell is often about 9 inches long. The animal lives in the last chamber only, but a tube (S) runs through the empty chambers, perforating the partitions (SE). The bulk of the animal is marked VM; the eye is shown at E; a hood is marked H; round the mouth there are numerous lobes (L) bearing protrusible tentacles, some of which are shown. When the animal is swimming near the surface the tentacles radiate out in all directions, and it has been described as "a shell with something like a cauliflower sticking out of it." The Pearly Nautilus is a good example of a conservative type, for it began in the Triassic Era. But the family of Nautiloids to which it belongs illustrates very vividly what is meant by a dwindling race. The Nautiloids began in the Cambrian, reached their golden age in the Silurian, and began to decline markedly in the Carboniferous. There are 2,500 extinct or fossil species of Nautiloids, and only 4 living to-day.
- The walking-fish or mud-skipper (Periophthalmus)
It skips about by means of its strong pectoral fins on the mud-flats; it jumps from stone to stone hunting small shore-animals; it climbs up the roots of the mangrove-trees. The close-set eyes protrude greatly and are very mobile. The tail seems to help in respiration.
- Genealogical tree of animals
Showing in order of evolution the general relations of the chief classes into which the world of living things is divided. This scheme represents the present stage of our knowledge, but is admittedly provisional.
- The Archæopteryx
(After William Leche of Stockholm.) A good restoration of the oldest known bird, Archæopteryx (Jurassic Era). It was about the size of a crow; it had teeth on both jaws; it had claws on the thumb and two fingers; and it had a long lizard-like tail. But it had feathers, proving itself a true bird.
Restored model of the skull and lower jaw of the ancestral elephant Palæomastodon from the upper Eocene strata of the Fayoum Desert, Egypt. It shows the six molar teeth of the upper and lower jaw (left side), the tusk-like upper incisors and the large chisel-like lower incisors in front.
Drawing of the skull of the rat-toothed goat, Myotragus—the new extinct beast discovered in limestone fissures in the island of Majorca by Miss Bate. 1. Side view of the skull and lower jaw. 2. Appearance of the two rat-like teeth as seen when the end of the lower jaw is viewed from above.
- molars of elephants
The crowns of three "grinders" or molars of elephants compared. a is that of an extinct mastodon with four transverse ridges; b is that of the African elephant with nine ridges in use and ground flat; c is that of the mammoth with sixteen narrow ridges in use—the rest, some eight in number, are at the left hand of the figure and not yet in use.