The Weasel has also been tamed and been found a lovable little animal. The Otter is another tamable creature and can be taught to catch fish and bring them to its master. Dr. Goldsmith tells us of one that would go to the fish pond when told to do so, drive the fish into a corner, seize the largest and carry it in its mouth to its master.
The Zebra, one of the most beautiful of animals, from its handsomely striped skin, is a member of the horse family, but one of which we do not need to speak, since it is found only in a wild state. It has in some cases been tamed and trained to harness, but it is an obstinate and hot-tempered brute, so that few have tried to tame it.
This animal has a thick coat of long, silky hair, which hangs nearly to the ground. Ropes and cloth are made from it. The tail is just a great bunch of long hair. The Yak does not bellow like the ox but gives a short grunt. Its milk is very rich, and fine butter is made from it.
A well-known wild goat is the Ibex of the Alps. This is a splendid fellow, with long and strong horns but no beard. It used to be very common, but has been shot at so much that very few are left.
The other wool-yielder is the Angora goat, well known in this country. This yields a thick and fine wool, soft and silky and slightly curled. The color is mostly snow-white, though at times there are dark patches. It is shed in great locks in summer, but soon grows again. During the hot weather the goats are constantly washed and combed, to add to the beauty of their wool. The finest Angora wool, called Mohair, comes from goats a year old. All its value is lost at six years of age.
The hedgehog is about a foot long and six inches high, with small black eyes and sharp-pointed head. The odd thing about it is the fact that where most animals are covered with hair this one is covered with spines, hard and sharp, like little thorns. These grow to be about an inch long and there are muscles in the back that cause them to stand up and stick out in all directions.
When a dog gets busy about a hedgehog, it does not try to run away. All it does is to roll itself up into a ball, its head and tail meeting over its lower parts and its spines sticking up all around. When the dog gets these into his nose a few times he is apt to lose his taste for hedgehog meat. He may roll the animal about with his paws, but that does no good, and he soon goes away with sore head and paws, leaving the hedgehog to unroll and make its way back to its burrow.
When taken home and fed it soon becomes very tame and friendly. It can be handled with safety, for when it is not rolled up its spines lie flat along its back, so that its friends can stroke its back and scratch its nose without harm. These it likes to have done. When it is put on a table it does not a bit mind taking a dive to the floor, for it rolls up so to fall on its spines and thus is not hurt.
A tame hedgehog is a good thing to keep in a garden or kitchen, for it helps to clear the one of worms and the other of roaches and sometimes will catch and kill a rat. It is not afraid to attack snakes, even poisonous ones like the viper. The poison does not seem to do it any harm.
The armadillo is an American animal, and is found in our country in the state of Texas. It goes south from there through Mexico and on to South America, where it is found everywhere. It lives in large numbers in the woods and on the great grass plains. In its food and habits it is much like the hedgehog, and like it burrows in the ground. To do this it has very strong claws, and these it can use to defend itself when it takes a fancy to fight.
A. Fore-limb of Monkey B. Fore-limb of Whale
What is meant by homology? Essential similarity of architecture, though the appearances may be very different
This is seen in comparing these two fore-limbs, A, of Monkey, B, of Whale. They are as different as possible, yet they show the same bones, e.g. SC, the scapula or shoulder-blade; H, the humerus or upper arm; R and U, the radius and ulna of the fore-arm; CA, the wrist; MC, the palm; and then the fingers.
In the bones and in their arrangement there is a close resemblance in the two cases, yet the outcome is very different. The multiplication of finger joints in the whale is a striking feature.
Photographically reduced from diagrams of the natural size (except that of the gibbon, which was twice as large as nature) drawn by Mr. Waterhouse Hawkins from specimens in the Museum of the Royal College of Surgeons.
Two species of these freshwater animals are found in Central Europe, Apus cancriformis and Apus productus, the latter also lives here. They can be recognized by the shape of the tail flap, which in the first species is very short and notched. Behind the shield-shaped shell, which covers the body of these animals at the back, protrudes only the long hindquarters, the last segment of which bears two long tail threads. The front part of the dorsal shield shows the two almost merging eyes. There are 30 to 40 pairs of limbs; the eleventh forms 2 brood bags for the female[ 631 ]storage of the eggs. On the back, only the 3 whip-shaped appendages of the first pair of legs are visible. The anterior blades are small, 2-membered, filamentous, the posterior only present in the larva state. The Gill Paws live in small puddles and other stagnant water; they die when their abode dries up. The eggs, which remain in the solidified mud, retain their development capability for a very long time.
[As translated online]
The Water Fleas ( Cladocera ) are the second suborder next to the Leaf-legged. Early in the morning, but also on warm, quiet evenings, and moreover in cloudy skies, these little creatures, the largest of which are seldom longer than 6 mM, swim close to the surface of the water; but they go down to the depths as soon as the sun begins to shine on the water with some force. Some species, by the way, always prefer to stay close to the muddy soil than in higher water layers. It is not surprising that they have long attracted the attention of naturalists, as they usually populate still and slowly flowing water in great crowds. The Cladoceren and Copepods make, according to Leijdig, almost the only food from the most estimated Visschen der Bavarian mountain lakes and from Lake Constance, from the Roode Trout ( Salmo salvellinus ) and Blauwe Houtingen ( Coregonus Wartmanni ), whose catch is a means of subsistence for a large number of inhabitants of the lake districts.
[As translated from the Dutch by online translator ]
Put the cord upon the horse, using the small loop; draw it with a steady pull; this brings the horse’s nose toward his body. Keep a firm hold upon the cord until he steps back a little, using at the same time the word “back.” Then caress him; by doing so you show him that he has done exactly as you wished him to, and the caresses should be repeated every time he obeys.