Roman Soldiers on Bridge of boats
(From the Trajan Column.)
(From the Model in the Blackmore Museum, Salisbury, after the Restoration by Dr. Stukeley.)
Stonehenge from the North-West
In mechanics they (the Druids) were equally advanced, judging from the monuments which remain to us. Of these, the most remarkable in England are Stonehenge, consisting of 139 enormous stones, ranged in a circle; and that of Avebury, in Wiltshire, which covers a space of twenty-eight acres of land.
(From the Bust in the British Museum.)
Britons with Coracles
he Danes by this time had formed settlements in Ireland as well as England, and we are told that one of their kings, named Anlaff, whom some think to be identical with Anlaff, the son of Sithric, others a different person, arrived from Ireland with many ships, and was joined by Owen of Cumberland, and Constantine, the king of the Scots. According to a late, and not very trustworthy, account of the campaign, it would appear that it was arranged so secretly that Anlaff entered the Humber with a fleet of six hundred sail, and invaded Northumbria before Athelstan had any intelligence of his landing; and with such forces, and the assistance of the Danes settled there, he easily became master of several small ill-guarded towns.
Dunstan rebuking Edwy in the presence of Elgiwa
Had it not been for the impossibility of keeping the English host together, and for the absence of Harold in the north, it is difficult to see how William could ever have effected a landing. As it was, however, his course was perfectly unopposed upon the sea, and a landing was safely effected at Pevensey on September 29th, four days after the battle of Stamford Bridge.
Map of England showing the Anglo-Saxon Kingdoms and Danish Districts
There is another piece of Roman work in the neighbourhood of Newport Gate, which is a piece of wall built with ashlar and binding courses of tile. It is known as the Mint Wall
Roman Soldiers Leaving Britain
Eustace, Count of Boulogne, who had married Edward's sister, having paid a visit to the king, passed by Dover in his return. One of his train being refused entrance to a lodging which had been assigned him, attempted to make his way by force, and in the contest he wounded the master of the house. The inhabitants revenged this insult by the death of the stranger; the count and his train took arms, and murdered the wounded townsman; a tumult ensued; nearly twenty persons were killed on each side; and Eustace, being overpowered by numbers, was obliged to save his life by flight from the fury of the populace.
Shortly after the Angora goat became known in Europe, efforts have started to acclimatize it on our continent. So far, there has been no reason to complain about the results of these experiments, which have led to the breeding of this breed in Spain, Italy, France and Sweden; it is even said that the wool of animals born in France is finer than that of their ancestors.
The Bezoar goat ( Capra aegagrus) is smaller than the European Capricorn, but still considerably larger than our House Goat. The length of the adult buck is about 1.5 M. the height of the withers is 95 cm. and that of the cross 2 cM. more. The very large and robust, compressed on both sides, sharply edged on the back and front, but rounded and arched horns on the outside, the length of which already exceeds 40 cm in the case of medium-sized animals, and in the old often more than 80 cm. are strongly and uniformly curved from the root.
Bison ( Bos bison ). - Wisent
t; it can be seen with certainty that the Wisent used to be widespread throughout Europe and much of Asia. In the heyday of Greece, he was frequent in the present-day Boelgarije; in Middel-Europe, he was found almost everywhere at the time. Aristotle calls him "Bonassus", and gives him a clear description; Pliny mentions him under the name "Bison"; ancient writings mention this animal, in the 6th and 7th centuries; According to the Nibelungen song, it appeared in Waasgau.
Bison (Forest americanus)
Fate, which has fallen into the Wisent over the centuries, has affected his one-part relative the Bison, in unbelievable shortness, one could even say in a period of ten years. Before the age of man, millions of these colossal animals crossed amazingly vast tracts of North America;—today, only hundreds of Bisons roam around.
Common Deer or Red Deer
The Camel derives its food exclusively from the plant kingdom and is not at all picky. It is safe to say that the sobriety of this animal is its greatest virtue: it is satisfied with the worst food. It can live for weeks on the thirst and driest plants of the desert. In some cases it seems an old dish or mat, woven from the long palm fronds of the date palm, into a tasty dish.
Gaur (Gaurus Forest)
The spread area of the Gaur is very extensive. From the southern rush hour of India to the Himalaja, eastbound by Assam and Tittagong to Burma and the Malaysian Peninsula, den Gaur can be found everywhere, where verboschrich mountain or hill country, however steep.
Giraffe, taking something from the bottom
All movements of the Giraffe are strange. She presents herself at her best when she goes quietly; she then has a dignified and graceful appearance. Her gait is a slow, measured pace; both legs of one side are moved at the same time. If she wants to move faster, because of the apparent mismatch between the shoulder height and the height in the crotch (and between the height and the length of the torso) she falls into a remarkable stiff, weak and plump gallop, which however, because of the great width of each jump taken separately, it causes the animal to travel a great way in a short time.
Hollandsch Rund (Bos taurus hollandicus)
The Lama , actually Llama ( Auchenia lama ), is mainly found in Peru and thrives best on the high plains. It grows a little larger than the Guanaco and is characterized by the calluses on the chest and on the front of the wrist joint. The head is narrow and short, the lips are hairy, the ears short, the soles large. The color offers great differences: there are white, black, variegated, reddish brown and white spotted, dark brown, ocher, flame red and others. The adult animal reaches a height of 2.6 to 2.8 M., measured from the sole to the crown; the shoulder height is approximately 1.2 M.
The most advantageous of all House sheep is nowadays considered the Merino sheep ( Ovis aries hispanica), which has acquired its characteristic peculiarities in Spain and was used successively to breed almost all European varieties. Of medium size and full-bodied, it is distinguished by its large head, which is flat on the forehead, arched along the back of the nose, and blunted at the snout; it has small eyes, large tear grooves, and moderately long, pointed ears.
Moon Sheep ( Ovis tragelaphus ), has a long drooping mane which makes a very peculiar impression. The coat consists of long, shaggy bristles and fine, frizzy woolly hair, which cover the entire body. The former extend to an upright, short, reminiscent of a mane crest at the top of the neck, neck and shoulders, and develop on the front and underside of the torso into dense, almost ground-hanging manes, which begin the throat and extend along the neck and forelimbs.
Mouflon ( Ovis musimon ), the only Wild Sheep, which inhabits Europe - the mountains of Sardinia and Corsica. It is generally believed that the Mouflon was also found in other parts of Europe in earlier times, and was also found on the Balearic Islands and in Greece, among others; however, there is no firm evidence to support this view. Today the Mouflon is still found in troops, which are said to often consist of 50 copies, but usually have far fewer members.
The oldest civilized peoples, including the Indians, had no other Domestic Cattle than the Zeboe, or moreover, a breed that differs relatively little from them, as well as the long-horned breed of ancient Egyptians. Since the Zeboe beef is nowhere near in the wild, and since no bones of this animal have been found in the ancient layers of the earth, it is obvious that the Zeboe has evolved from other forms of Cattle.
Sasi or Indian Antelope
The Sheep-ox or Muscus-ox , the Oemingarok der Eskimos ( Ovibos moschatus ), miraculously combines in itself the characteristics of the Cattle and of the Sheep; it is therefore necessary for us to consider him as a representative of a separate subfamily.
Two-humped Camel ( Camelus bactrianus )
The Two-humped Camel is bred in all the steppe countries of Central Asia, and is mainly used for the transportation of goods between China and the south of Siberia or Touran. In Bukhara and Turkenia it is gradually being replaced by the Dromedary, which takes its full place where the steppe takes on the characteristics of a desert.
More graceful than the Lama,is the Vicuña ( Auchenia vicugna ). Because of its size it stands between the Lama and the Paco; however, it differs from both in the much shorter and crimped wool, which excels in fineness. The crown, the top of the neck, the trunk and the upper parts of the limbs have a peculiar, reddish-yellow color (vicuña or vigogne color); the underside of the neck and the inner surface of the limbs are ocher; the 12 cm. long chest hairs and lower body are white.
Polar Bear cleaning itself
Polar Bear coming out of hibernation
Polar Bear in boat
Polar bears on ice
The Polar, or great white bear
Trapping a polar bear
Fishing provided food as well as recreation for the colonists. (Conjectural sketch by Sidney E. King.)
When the first settlers planted their small colony at Jamestown, the tidewater rivers and bays and the Atlantic Ocean bordering the Virginia coast teemed with many kinds of fish and shellfish which were both edible and palatable. Varieties which the colonists soon learned to eat included sheepshead, shad, sturgeon, herring, sole, white salmon, bass, flounder, pike, bream, perch, rock, and drum, as well as oysters, crabs, and mussels. Seafood was an important source of food for the colonists, and at times, especially during the early years of the settlement, it was the main source.
Those in England who planned to go to Virginia were always advised to provide themselves (among other items) with nets, fishhooks, and lines.
During archeological explorations, fishhooks, lead net weights, fish-gigs, and small anchors were uncovered. These are reminders of a day when fish and shellfish were abundant in every tidewater Virginia creek, river, and bay.
Harvesting tobacco at Jamestown, about 1650. (Painting by Sidney E. King.)
The early Jamestown settlers were advised to equip themselves with “one armour compleat, light.” (Conjectural sketch by Sidney E. King.)
A Jamestown sentry on duty shouldering his heavy matchlock musket. (Conjectural sketch by Sidney E. King.)
Jamestown soldiers carrying polearms (a halberd and a bill). (conjectural sketch by Sidney E. King.)
Archeological explorations revealed that the colonists enjoyed archery. The iron lever shown, known as a “goat’s foot,” Was used for setting the string of a light hunting crossbow. It was found 4 miles from Jamestown. Illustration showing the use of a “goat’s foot” From Weapons, A Pictorial History by Edwin Tunis.
Playing a Jew’s harp—enjoying a little music in the Virginia wilderness. (Conjectural sketch by Sidney E. King.)
A large assortment of iron and brass Jew’s harps (also known as Jew’s trumps) have been found. This small instrument is lyre-shaped, and when placed between the teeth gives tones from a bent metal tongue when struck by the finger. Modulation of tone is produced by changing the size and shape of the mouth cavity.
Settlers trading with the indians—bartering casting counters and other trade goods for furs. (Conjectural sketch by Sidney E. King.)
One reason why the colonists selected a site for Jamestown some miles up the James River was to develop the Indian trade over an extensive area. During the early years of the colony, trade with the natives was encouraged. It is clear from the early records that the settlers bartered such items as beads, cloth, penny knives, shears, bells, glass toys, whistles, hatchets, pots and pans, brass casting counters, and similar objects in exchange for Indian corn (and other vegetables), fish, game, fruits and berries, and furs.
Spinning thread or yarn and weaving cloth were endless chores for the women living in the small wilderness settlemenT. (Conjectural sketch by Sidney E. King.)
A physician bleeding a patient. (Conjectural sketch by Sidney E. King.)
One of the members of the first colony was a surgeon, William Wilkinson by name. As the colony grew, other surgeons, physicians, and apothecaries, emigrated to Virginia. Their lot was not easy, for it appears that they were seldom idle in an island community having more than its share of “cruell diseases, Swellings, Flixes, Burning Fevers, warres and meere famine.”
During archeological explorations, drug jars, ointment pots, bleeding bowls, mortars and pestles, small bottles and vials, and parts of surgical instruments were recovered. These, undoubtedly, were used countless times at Jamestown by unknown “chirurgions,” doctors of “physickes,” and apothecaries—men who tried to keep the colonists well with their limited medical equipment and scant supply of drugs.
Making lime from oyster shells in a kiln, about 1625. (Conjectural sketch by Sidney E. King.)
A wharf scene—arrival of a ship from the mother country. (Conjectural sketch by Sidney E. King.)
During the 17th century, active trade was carried on between the Virginia colony and the mother country. Local commodities of timber, wood products, soap ashes, iron ore, tobacco, pitch, tar, furs, minerals, salt, sassafras, and other New World raw materials were shipped to England. In exchange, English merchants sold to the colonists, tools, farm implements, seeds, stock and poultry, furniture and household accessories, clothing, weapons, hardware, kitchen utensils, pottery, metalware, glassware, and certain foods and drinks.
There is also good evidence that some trade was carried on with Holland, Germany, Italy, Spain, Portugal, France, Mexico, and the West Indies. Many artifacts unearthed (especially pottery) were made in the countries mentioned. It is believed that certain commodities were acquired by direct trade with the country where made, in spite of the strict laws by which the Colonial Powers sought to monopolize the colonial trade for the benefit of the mother country.
Baking bread in an outdoor baking oven about 1650. (Conjectural sketch by Sidney E. King.)
Brewing beer at Jamestown. (Conjectural sketch by Sidney E. King.)
Building a wharf, about 1650. (Conjectural sketch by Sidney E. King.)
Piers and Wharfs.—In order to accommodate such large sailing vessels, piers and wharfs had to be built at Jamestown. A 1,300-pound iron piledriver was found in the basement of a 17th-century building in 1955. It was probably used three centuries ago for driving piles in the James River during construction of a small wharf.