From Joh. Wolfii Lect. Memorab. (Lavingæ, 1600.)
It will be seen by the curious woodcut from Baptista Mantuanus, that he consigned Pope Joan to the jaws of hell, notwithstanding her choice. The verses accompanying this picture are:—
“Hic pendebat adhuc sexum mentita virile
Fœmina, cui triplici Phrygiam diademate mitram
Extollebat apex: et pontificalis adulter.”
It need hardly be stated that the whole story of Pope Joan is fabulous, and rests on not the slightest historical foundation. It was probably a Greek invention to throw discredit on the papal hierarchy, first circulated more than two hundred years after the date of the supposed Pope. Even Martin Polonus (A. D. 1282), who is the first to give the details, does so merely on popular report.
I believe that the imagination is the principal motive force in those who use the divining rod; but whether it is so solely, I am unable to decide. The powers of nature are so mysterious and inscrutable that we must be cautious in limiting them, under abnormal conditions, to the ordinary laws of experience.
From “Lettres qui découvrent l’Illusion des Philosophes sur la Baguette.” Paris, 1693
The Regions are given as they were laid out by Fiorelli, the boundaries being marked by broken lines. The Insulae are designated by Arabic numerals.
Stabian Street, between Stabian and Vesuvius gates, separating Regions VIII, VII, and VI, from I, IX, and V, is often called Cardo, from analogy with the cardo maximus (the north and south line) of a Roman camp. Nola Street, leading from the Nola Gate, with its continuations (Strada della Fortuna, south of Insulae 10, 12, 13, and 14 of Region VI, and Strada della Terme, south of VI, 4, 6, 8), was for similar reasons designated as the Greater Decuman, Decumanus Maior; while the street running from the Water Gate to the Sarno Gate (Via Marina, Abbondanza Street, Strada dei Diadumeni) is called the Lesser Decuman, Decumanus Minor.
The only Regions wholly excavated are VII and VIII; but only a small portion of Region VI remains covered.
The towers of the city wall are designated by numbers, as they are supposed to have been at the time of the siege of Sulla, in 89 B.C.
The Street of Tombs
24. Villa of Diomedes.
16-23. Tombs—Group III.
16. Unfinished tomb.
17. Tomb of Umbricius Scaurus.
18. Round tomb.
19. Sepulchral enclosure.
20. Tomb of Calventius Quietus.
21. Sepulchral enclosure of Istacidius Helenus.
22. Tomb of Naevoleia Tyche.
23. Triclinium Funebre.
5-15. So-called Villa of Cicero.
1-4 a. Tombs—Group I.
1. Sepulchral niche of Cerrinius Restitutus.
2. Sepulchral bench of A. Veius.
3. Tomb of M. Porcius.
4. Sepulchral bench of Mamia.
4 a. Tomb of the Istacidii.
A. Herculaneum Gate.
C. Bay Road.
KEY TO THE RIGHT SIDE
33-43. Tombs—Group IV.
33. Unfinished tomb.
34. Tomb with the marble door.
35. Unfinished tomb.
36. Sepulchral enclosure with small pyramids.
37. Tomb of Luccius Libella.
38. Tomb of Ceius Labeo.
39. Tomb without a name.
40. Sepulchral niche of Salvius.
41. Sepulchral niche of Velasius Gratus.
42. Tomb of M. Arrius Diomedes.
43. Tomb of Arria.
31-32. Samnite Graves.
10, 11, 13, 14. Shops.
12. Garden belonging to Tombs 8 and 9.
15. Street entrance of Inn.
16-28. Rooms belonging to the Inn.
29-30. Potter's establishment.
1-9. Tombs—Group II.
1. Tomb without a name.
2. Sepulchral enclosure of Terentius Felix.
3, 4. Tombs without names.
5. Sepulchral enclosure.
6. Garland tomb.
7. Sepulchral enclosure.
8. Tomb of the Blue Glass Vase.
9. Sepulchral niche.
A. Herculaneum Gate.
B. City Wall.
D. Road along City Wall.
E-E. Vesuvius Road.
A. The Forum.
1. Pedestal of the statue of Augustus.
2. Pedestal of the statue of Claudius.
3. Pedestal of the statue of Agrippina.
4. Pedestal of the statue of Nero.
5. Pedestal of the statue of Caligula.
6. Pedestals of equestrian statues.
7. Pedestals of standing figures.
8. Pedestal for three equestrian statues.
9. Speaker's platform
10. Table of standard measures
11. Room of the supervisor of measures.
B. The Basilica.
a. Entrance court.
2. Main room.
4-4. Rooms at the ends of the tribunal.
C. The Temple of Apollo.
6. Sacristan's room.
7-7. Rooms made from earlier colonnade.
D. D'. Market Buildings.
F. F. City Treasury.
G. Commemorative Arch.
H. Temple of Jupiter.
I. Arch of Tiberius.
K. The Provision Market—Macellum.
3-3. Market stalls.
4. Market for meat and fish.
5. Chapel of the imperial family.
6. Banquet room.
7. Round structure with water basin—Tholus.
L. Sanctuary of the City Lares.
1. Main room, unroofed, with an altar in the centre.
2. Apse, with shrine.
3. Recesses with pedestals.
4. Niche opening on the Forum.
M. Temple of Vespasian.
N. The Building of Eumachia.
O. The Voting Place—Comitium.
1. Recess opening on the main room.
2. Recess opening on the Forum.
P-R. Municipal Buildings.
P. Office of the duumvirs.
Q. Hall of the city council.
R. Office of the aediles.
1, 5. Cistern curbs.
2. Wash basin of masonry.
3. Lead reservoir from which water was conducted to the reservoir in the kitchen supplying the bath.
4. Steps leading to the reservoir.
2. Reservoir containing water for the bath.
3. Stairway to rooms over the bath.
4. Entrance to cellar under the inner end of the first wine press, in which were the fastenings of the standard of the press beam.
C. Furnace room.
J. Tool Room.
K, L. Sleeping Rooms.
N. Dining Room.
P. Room with Two Wine Presses.
1, 1. Foundations of the presses.
2, 2, 2. Receptacles for the grape juice, dolia.
3. Cistern for the product of the second pressing, lacus.
4. Holes for the standards of the press beams.
5, 5. Holes for the posts at the ends of the two windlasses used in raising and lowering the press beams.
6. Pit affording access to the framework by which the windlass posts were tied down.
1. Round vats, dolia.
R. Court for the Fermentation of Wine.
1. Channel for the fresh grape juice coming from P.
2. Fermentation vats, dolia.
3. Lead kettle over a fireplace.
4. Cistern curb.
S. Barn, nubilarium (?).
T. Threshing Floor, area.
U. Open Cistern for the Water falling on the Threshing Floor.
V-V. Sleeping Rooms.
W. Entrance to Cellar under the Inner End of the Second Wine Press; see B. 4.
X. Room with Hand Mill.
Y. Room with Oil Press.
1. Foundation of the press.
2. Hole for the standard of the press beam.
3. Entrance to cellar with appliances for securing the press beam.
4. Holes for the windlass posts.
5. Hole affording access to the fastenings of the windlass posts.
6. Receptacle for the oil, gemellar.
Z. Room containing the Olive Crusher.
A. Portico at the Entrance of the Forum Triangulare.
B. Forum Triangulare.
1, 1. Colonnade.
3. Doric temple.
4. Semicircular bench, with sundial.
5. Sepulchral enclosure.
7. Well house.
8. Pedestal of the statue of Marcellus.
C. Open-air Gymnasium—Palaestra.
2. Pedestal with steps behind it.
3, 3. Dressing rooms.
D. Tank for Saffron Water.
E. Large Theatre.
1. Dressing room.
4. Ima cavea.
5. Media cavea.
6. Summa cavea, over a corridor.
7, 7. Tribunals.
F. Small Theatre.
1. Dressing room.
3, 3. Tribunalia.
G. Theatre Colonnade, used as Barracks for Gladiators.
1. Passage leading from Stabian Street.
3. Doorkeeper's room.
4. Passage to the Large Theatre, walled up.
5. Stairway leading down from the Forum Triangulare.
6. Athletes' waiting room—Exedra.
7. Room with remains of weapons and cloth.
8. Guard room.
9. Stairs leading to overseer's rooms.
11. Mess room.
H. Temple of Zeus Milichius.
4. Sacristan's room.
I. Temple of Isis.
3. Shrine of Harpocrates.
5. Hall of initiation.
6. Hall of the Mysteries.
7. Priest's residence.
K. City Wall.
L. Foundations of Steps.
An altar stands before the statue of Venus. In pre-Roman times this may have been the only shrine in the city at which worship was offered to Herentas; for by that name the goddess of love was known in the native speech. Venus as goddess of the Roman colony, was represented in an altogether different guise, and had a special place of worship elsewhere
North end of the Forum, with the Temple of Jupiter