“Clay pipe from Babylon, the most ancient yet found, apparently modelled to imitate the skull of some animal. It still sounds clearly the intervals of the common chord.”
The first and primaeval musical instruments must have been of the simplest kind.
A hollow reed, uttering, when blown with the mouth, one monotonous sound would be the first successful attempt at such an invention. The next step was to vary the sound by perforating it with holes, like to our " Penny Whistle."
".. put two such pipes into the mouth, and you get the double Egyptian and Assyrian pipe, such as may be still seen sculptured on their monuments. In the holes or apertures of some of these pipes, which have
been discovered in the tombs and other places, small straws have been found, plainly intended to act the part of reeds in our modern oboes and clarionets. "
The history of the Harp may be traced with much the same clearness. The twanging of the bow probably suggested the original idea; and the variation of sound was obtained by lengthening and shortening a multiplicity of strings. These were made, at first, of some fibrous material, or the long hair of animals. Perhaps even the tresses of wives and daughters were turned to such musical use, as we read in the Greek and Roman historians that the bows of the Carthaginians were thus supplied with strings in their last war with the Romans. Harps, too, like the bow, were portable, about four feet long; and all Oriental harps, so far as we can judge from surviving sculptures, unlike ours, had no front pillar. Their bow-like shape and characteristics long remained. Without entering at greater length on their further and later development, we can easily imagine how soon the need of pegs for tightening and loosening the strings was felt; how a sounding-board was found to add to the body of sound; how Strings of fibre or hair were supplanted by those of catgut, of steel, and even of silver. Whether the fingers or whether the quill and plectrum were the first manipulators of the strings, is a matter of debate. Certainly fingers were made long before either quills or plectra! Be it as it may, after these latter had been introduced, hammers wielded by the hand in due time followed. And thus we see how the "stringed instruments" of primaeval and ancient days became the parent of the dulcimer, the spinet, the harpsichord, and the piano.
The next natural step for the use of music would be that of victory and triumph. The first notice of this kind is the song of Miriam. And here we may rightly conjecture the introduction of an Egyptian, and therefore cultured element. " Miriam took a timbrel in her hand, and all the women went out after her with timbrels and with dances " (Exod. xv. 2o).
Assyrian Harpist , beating time with his foot
A framework with loose metal bars inserted, sometimes with metal rings added, shaken by the hand.
Group of Harps and other musical instruments
A Sambuca or triangular harp
Jewish Rabbis refer their use to Genesis. xxii. 13
A Levite with a Ram's Horn
Egyptian Crotola or Castanets
Group of Western Lyres
I have given this Bird the above Name, because it comes pretty near the Bird we call a Buzzard, or Pottock, in its Shape, Magnitude, and partly in its Colour, tho' it differs in many Respects, which shews it to be specifically different from our's in Eng-land, which see described in Willoughby's Ornithology, p. 70. Tab. 6. It seemed to me of the Bigness of a middle-sized Hen or Cock; its Shape and due Proportions I have, as well as I could, expressed in the Figure. The Bill is of a blueish Lead-Colour, cover'd with a Skin of the same Colour, from the Nostrils to the Point an Inch and a Quarter, from the Angles of the Mouth to the Point of the Bill two Inches ; The Head, and Fore-part of the Neck, are covered with Feathers, having dark brown Spots in the Middle, the rest of the Feathers being white, which make a pretty Appearance of White spotted with dark Brown ; from the Angles of the Mouth is drawn on each Side under the Eyes a dusky Line; the dark Spots on the Breast are larger than those on the Head, the Sides and Belly are covered with dark brown Feathers, spotted with round or oval Spots of White; the Thighs are covered with soft, loose, white Feathers, with long irregular Dashes of dark Brown down their Shafts ; the covert Feathers on the under Side of the Tail are barr'd transversly with Black and White ; the whole upper Side, Neck, Back, Wings, and Tail, are covered with brownish ash-coloured Feathers, darker in their middle Parts, their Edges becoming gradually lighter, which is most manifest in the smaller covert Feathers of the Wings, their very Edges being almost white. The outer Webb of the first Quill is spotted with a light Colour : the inner Webb on the under Side is Ash-colour, indented with White very distinctly, which Indenture becomes more and more confused and broken till the twelfth Quill, where it wholly disappears, the rest of the Quills within being Ash-colour: The covert Feathers, within-side of the Wings, are of a dark, dirty Brown, sprinkled with round Spots of White: The upper Side of the 'Tail is barr'd a-cross with narrow Bars of Clay-Colour ; as are the Feathers that cover the upper Side of the Tail : The under Side of the Tail is Ash-colour, barr'd accross with White: The Legs and Feet are of a blueish ash-colour; the Claws black: the fore Part of the Legs are cover'd half Way to the Feet with dusky Feathers.
[I kept the caption much as it was in 1747 English, keeping the capitalization, just changing the funny S character to a regular s]
A Boy and his dog both looking sad
Girl carrying a book
Girl reading a story to her doll
Boy and girl feeding a pony an apple
Boy punching another boy as a girl looks on