- Erection of a Cantilever
The new bridge at Poughkeepsie has three of these cantilevers, connected by two fixed spans, as shown in the illustration. The fixed spans have horizontal lower chords, and really extend beyond each pier and up the inclined portions, to where the bottom chord of the cantilever is horizontal. At these points the junctions between the spans are made, and arranged in such a way, by means of movable links, that expansion and contraction due to changes of temperature can take place. The fixed spans are 525 feet long. Their upper chord, where the tracks are placed, is 212 feet above water. These spans required stagings to build them upon. These stagings were 220 feet above water, and rested on piles, driven through 60 feet of water and 60 feet of mud, making the whole height of the temporary staging 332 feet, or within 30 feet of the height of Trinity Church steeple, in New York. The time occupied in building one of these stagings and then erecting the steel-work upon it was about four months. The cantilever spans were erected without any stagings at all below, and entirely from the two overhead travelling scaffolds, shown in the engraving. These scaffolds were moved out daily from the place of beginning over the piers, until they met in the centre. The workmen hoisted up the different pieces of steel from a barge in the river below and put them into place, using suspended planks to walk upon. The time saved by this method was so great that one of these spans of 548 feet long was erected in less than four weeks, or one-seventh of the time which would have been required if stagings had been used.
- View of Thomas Pope's Proposed Cantilever (1810)
The most notable invention of latter days in bridge construction is that of the cantilever bridge, which is a system devised to dispense with staging, or false works, where from the great depth, or the swift current, of the river, this would be difficult, or, as in the case of the Niagara River, impossible to make. The first design of which we have any record was that of a bridge planned by Thomas Pope, a ship carpenter of New York, who, in 1810, published a book giving his designs for an arched bridge of timber across the North River at Castle Point, of 2,400 feet span. Mr. Pope called this an arch, but his description clearly shows it to have been what we now call a cantilever. As was the fashion of the day, he indulged in a poetical description: "Like half a Rainbow rising on yon shore, While its twin partner spans the semi o'er, And makes a perfect whole that need not part Till time has furnish'd us a nobler art."
- Steam Excavator
On the prairies of the West the road-bed is thrown up from ditches on each side, either by men with wheelbarrows and carts, or by means of a ditching-machine, which can move 3,000 yards of earth daily. In this case the track follows immediately after the embankment, and the men live in cars fitted up as boarding-shanties, and moved forward as fast as required.
- Snow-sheds, Selkirk Mountains, Canadian Pacific
In all countries, old and new, mountainous and level, the rule should be to keep the level of track well above the surface of the ground, in order to insure good drainage and freedom from snow-drifts. The question of avoidance of obstruction by snow is a very serious one upon the Rocky Mountain lines, and they could not be worked without the device of snow-sheds—another purely American invention. There are said to be six miles of staunchly built snow-sheds on the Canadian Pacific and sixty miles on the Central Pacific Railway. The quantity of snow falling is enormous, sometimes amounting to 250,000 cubic yards, weighing over 100,000 tons, in one slide. It is stated by the engineers of the Canadian Pacific, that the force of the air set in motion by these avalanches has mown down large trees, not struck by the snow itself. Their trunks, from one to two feet in diameter, remain, split as if struck by lightning.
- A Switchback
Another American invention is the switchback. By this plan the length of line required to ease the gradient is obtained by running backward and forward in a zigzag course, instead of going straight up the mountain. As a full stop has to be made at the end of every piece of line, there is no danger of the train running away from its brakes. This device was first used among the hills of Pennsylvania over forty years ago, to lower coal cars down into the Nesquehoning Valley. It was afterwards used on the Callao, Lima, and Oroya Railroad in Peru, by American engineers, with extraordinary daring and skill. It was employed to carry the temporary tracks of the Cascade Division of the Northern Pacific Railroad over the "Stampede" Pass, with grades of 297 feet per mile, while a tunnel 9,850 feet long was being driven through the mountains.
- A Sharp Curve—Manhattan Elevated Railway, 110th Street, New York
Equally valuable improvements were made in cars, both for passengers and freight. Instead of the four-wheeled English car, which on a rough track dances along on three wheels, we owe to Ross Winans, of Baltimore, the application of a pair of four-wheeled swivelling trucks, one under each end of the car, thus enabling it to accommodate itself to the inequalities of a rough track and to follow its locomotive around the sharpest curves. There are, on our main lines, curves of less than 300 feet radius, while, on the Manhattan Elevated, the largest passenger traffic in the world is conducted around curves of less than 100 feet radius. There are few curves of less than 1,000 feet radius on European railways.
- Locomotive of To-day
- Rail Making
- The Last Span - ready to join
- Pioneer Wagons
About 1820, the State of Illinois was being rapidly settled by people from the eastern states. Prior to this time, very few white settlements had been made in the state. These early pioneers, drawn from the population of the eastern states, were composed of almost all nationalities. They pushed their way across the mountains of Pennsylvania and Virginia in crude wagons, drawn by oxen, bringing with them their household goods and a few milk cows.
- Early Settler Homestead
About 1820, the State of Illinois was being rapidly settled by people from the eastern states. Prior to this time, very few white settlements had been made in the state. These early pioneers, drawn from the population of the eastern states, were composed of almost all nationalities. They pushed their way across the mountains of Pennsylvania and Virginia in crude wagons, drawn by oxen, bringing with them their household goods and a few milk cows. They came into Illinois, built new homes, and laid out new fields on the broad, unsettled prairies.
In April, 1869, a charter was granted by the state of Illinois to the East St. Louis Stock Yards Company. This company was authorized to issue stock to an amount not to exceed $200,000. The original charter of the company, which later operated the National Stock Yards, fixed the capital stock thereof at $1,000,000, which was, subsequently, raised, by a vote of the stock holders, to an amount of $250,000, to meet the requirements of the rapidly growing business. When the National Stock Yards were completed, they were more convenient than were any others of their kind in the country.
- The Summer that the rain came not
The great drouths caused the price of corn to fluctuate but the aggregate corn yield kept on increasing with increased acreage and usually the year following a drouth was one of superabundance of corn. Such was the year of 1895 following the drouth of 1894. The proportion of cattle per thousand population steadily increased. Meanwhile our cattle markets became centralized and were always full to overflowing. Everybody wondered where the cattle came from.
- Diagram of the Curtiss Flying Boat no. 2
A "No. 2 flying boat," just built by Mr. Curtiss, and successfully tested on Lake Keuka, Hammondsport, in July, 1912, is the "last word" in aviation so far. An illustration in this book, made from photographs taken in mid-July, 1912, shows fully the bullet-shape of the "flying fish." It is a real boat, built with a fish-shaped body containing two comfortable seats for the pilot and passenger or observer, either of whom can operate the machine by a system of dual control, making it also available for teaching the art of flying. All the controls are fastened to the rear of the boat's hull, which makes them very rigid and strong, while the boat itself, made in stream-line form, offers the least possible resistance to the air, even less than that offered by the landing gear upon a standard land machine. Above the boat are mounted the wings and aeroplane surface. In the centre of this standard biplane construction is situated the eighty horse-power motor with its propeller in the rear, thus returning to the original practice, as in the standard Curtiss machines, of having a single propeller attached direct to the motor, thus doing away with all chains and transmission gearing which might give trouble, and differing from the earlier model flying boat built in San Diego, California, last winter (1911-12), which was equipped with "tractor" propellors propellers in front driven by chains. The new flying boat is twenty-six feet long and three feet wide. The planes are five and a half feet deep and thirty feet wide. It runs on the water at a speed of fifty miles an hour, and is driven by an eighty horse-power Curtiss motor. At a greater speed than this it cannot be kept on the water, but rises in the air and flies at from fifty to sixty miles per hour.
- Scientific American Trophy
Following the success of the "White Wing" we started in to build another machine, embodying all that we had learned from our experience with the two previous ones. Following our custom of giving each machine a name to distinguish it from the preceding one, we called this third aeroplane the "June Bug." The name was aptly chosen, for it was a success from the very beginning. Indeed, it flew so well that we soon decided it was good enough to win the trophy which had been offered by The Scientific American for the first public flight of one kilometer, or five-eights of a mile, straightaway. This trophy, by the way, was the first to be offered in this country for an aeroplane flight, and the conditions specified that it should become the property of the person winning it three years in succession. The "June Bug" was given a thorough try-out before we made arrangements to fly for the trophy, and we were confident it would fulfill the requirements.
- Diagram of Curtiss motor, side and front views
1. Cylinder; 2. Engine Bed; 3. Fuel Tank: 4. Oil Pan; 5. Radiator; 6. Propeller; 7. Crank Case; 8. Carbureter; 9. Gasoline Pipe; 10. Air Intake; 11. Auxiliary Air-pipe; 12. Drain Cock; 13. Water Cooling System; 14. Gas Intake Pipe; 15. Rocker Arm; 16. Spring on Intake Valve; 17. Spring on Exhaust Valve; 18. Exhaust Port; 19. Rocker Arm Post; 20. Push Rod.
- Diagram of Curtiss Aeroplane, side view
1. Motor; 2. Radiator; 3. Fuel Tank; 4. Upper Main Plane; 5. Lower Main Plane; 6. Aileron; 7. Vertical Rudder; 8. Tail Surface; 9. Horizontal Rudder, or Rear Elevator; 10. Front Elevator; 11. Vertical Fin; 12. Steering Wheel; 13. Propeller; 14. Foot Throttle Lever; 15. Hand Throttle Lever; 16. Foot Brake.
- Captain John Smith’s Map of New England
The Pilgrims were familiar with Capt. John Smith’s account of a voyage in which he had surveyed the coast from Cape Cod to Penobscot Bay in 1614. He had even offered his services as guide and military captain, but Myles Standish got the job. Undoubtedly they did bring with them his Description of New England (London, 1616), in which the following map was published. Capt. Smith, who had already gained some fame and fortune in Virginia, dedicated to Prince Charles this effort in which the term “New England” first appeared: “... it being my chance to range some other parts of America, whereof I here present your highness the description in a map, my humble suit [in original, “sure”] is you would please to change their barbarous names for such English, as posterity may say Prince Charles was their godfather.” Several English place-names were incorporated in the map, but posterity disregarded most of them, a noteworthy exception being “Plimouth.” Smith notes that the Indians called the site “... Accomack, an excellent good harbor, good land, and no want of any thing but industrious people,” recalling that “After much kindness, upon a small occasion we fought also with 40 or 50 of those [Indians]; though some were hurt and some slain, yet within an hour after, they became friends.”
- Samuel de Champlain’s Map of Plymouth Harbor
Although the Pilgrims were the first Europeans to establish a permanent colony in northeastern North America, they did not come to an unknown land. As early as 1605, Samuel de Champlain had mapped Plymouth Harbor, in the course of a three-year expedition during which he explored the coast from Nova Scotia to Martha’s Vineyard. The quality of his detailed and accurate observations on the land and people appears in this map, and in his notes on the visit: “There came to us two or three canoes, which had just been fishing for cod and other fish which are found there in large numbers. These they catch with hooks made of a piece of wood, to which they attach a bone in the shape of a spear and fasten it very securely. The whole has a fang-shape, and the line attached to it is made out of the bark of a tree. They gave me one of their hooks, which I took out of curiosity. In it the bone was fastened on by hemp, like that in France, as it seemed to me, and they told me that they gathered this plant without being obliged to cultivate it, and indicated that it grew to the height of four or five feet. This canoe went back on shore to give notice to their fellow inhabitants, who caused columns of smoke to arise on our account. We saw eighteen or twenty savages, who came to the shore and began to dance. Our canoe landed in order to give them some bagatelles, at which they were greatly pleased. Some of them came to us and begged us to go to their river. We weighed anchor to do so, but were unable to enter on account of the small amount of water, it being low tide, and were accordingly obliged to anchor at the mouth. I went ashore, where I saw many others, who received us very cordially. I made also an examination of the river, but saw only an arm of water extending a short distance inland, where the land is only in part cleared. Running into this is merely a brook not deep enough for boats except at full tide. The circuit of the bay is about a league. On one side of the entrance to this bay there is a point which is almost an island, covered with wood, principally pines, and adjoins sandbanks, which are very extensive. On the other side, the land is high. There are two islets in this bay, which are not seen until one has entered, and around which it is almost entirely dry at low tide. This place is very conspicuous from the sea, for the coast is very low, excepting the cape at the entrance to the bay. We named it the Port du Cap. St. Louis...”.
- Reconstruction of coal-forming swamp
Coal is a combustible rock that was formed by the accumulation and partial decay of vegetation. When coal was forming millions of years ago, most of the state was a low coastal plain bordered on the west and southwest by a shallow sea. A large variety of plants grew in great swamps which covered this coastal plain. When the plants died, they accumulated in the swamps to form thick masses of peat that were eventually covered by shallow seas and buried beneath mud and sand. Periodically, the region was above sea level, new swamps developed, new peat deposits accumulated, and more sediments were laid down. This process occurred repeatedly until over 3,000 feet of sediments had been deposited. Then the sediments were slowly compacted and hardened so that sandstones, shales, limestones, and coals were formed.
- Extent of the main glacial advances
Extent of the main glacial advances which began with the Nebraskan (a—the oldest) and ended with the late Wisconsinan (f—the youngest). Diagram “d” shows the major stream development during the time between the Illinoian and the earliest Wisconsinan glaciers. The heavy lines on the diagrams indicate major stream valleys that were present during these times. a. Inferred limit of NEBRASKAN glaciation b. Inferred limit of KANSAN glaciation c. ILLINOIAN glacial advance d. SANGAMONIAN major drainage e. Maximum WISCONSINAN glacial advance f. Late WISCONSINAN Valparaiso front and Kankakee Flood
- Physiographic provinces of Illinois
Physiography is the study of the creation and gradual change of land surface forms (the landscape). Thus, the land surface as we see it today in each of the physiographic provinces has had a particular history of development. Driftless Area Wisconsinan Moraines Illinoian Till Plain Mississippi River Wabash River Shawnee Hills Ohio River
- Abraham Lincoln, President-Elect
- The Residence of Abraham Lincoln
- An eye sketch of the Falls of Niagara
AN EYE SKETCH of the FALLS of NIAGARA I.Weld del. Neele sculpt. London Published by J. Stockdale Piccadilly 16th. Novr. 1798.
- View of the Falls of Niagara
View of the FALLS of Niagara J. Scott Published Dec.14 1798, by J. Stockdale
- View of the Lesser Fall of Niagara
VIEW of the Lesser FALL of NIAGARA I.Weld del. J. Scott sculpt. Published Dec. 22, 1798, by J. Stockdale Picadilly.
- View of Bethlehem a Moravian settlement
VIEW of BETHLEHEM a Moravian settlement. I. Weld del. J. Dadley sculpt. Published Dec. 12 1798, by I. Stockdale, Picadilly. Bethlehem is the principal settlement, in North America, of the Moravians, or United Brethren. It is most agreeably situated on a rising ground, bounded on one side by the river Leheigh, which falls into the Delaware, and on the other by a creek, which has a very rapid current, and affords excellent seats for a great number of mills. The town is regularly laid out, and contains about eighty strong built stone dwelling houses and a large church. Three of the dwelling houses are very spacious buildings, and are appropriated respectively to the accommodation of the unmarried young men of the society, of the unmarried females, and of the widows. In these houses different manufactures are carried on, and the inmates of each are subject to a discipline approaching somewhat to that of a monastic institution. They eat together in a refectory; they sleep in dormitories; they attend morning and evening prayers in the chapel of the house; they work for a certain number of hours in the day; and they have stated intervals allotted to them for recreation.
- View of the Horse-Shoe Fall of Niagara
VIEW of the HORSE-SHOE FALL of NIAGARA I.Weld del. Neele Scupt. Published by J. Stockdale Picadilly.
- Orientation of a house to the sun
In the first place, you see three broad, concentric circles, on the outside of which the rising and setting sun is depicted for both midsummer and midwinter day. The figures, 30°–50°, alongside of the sun represent degrees of north latitude, wherever you may happen to live, which, with the exception of most of Florida and southern Texas, cover the United States. The short arrows show the direction of the sun’s rays at sunrise and sunset. The inner circle represents your horizon, and the degrees marked upon it show the points of sunrise and sunset, north or south of the direct east and west line. These angular distances, in terms of degrees, are called amplitudes, north or south, and must not be confused with the degrees of latitude on the earth’s surface, indicated by the numbers along side of the sun, though intimately dependent upon them. The amplitude of the horizon point, where the sun rises and sets from time to time during the year, always depends upon the latitude on the earth’s surface where you happen to live, as may be seen by following with your eye the direction of the arrows of latitude through the amplitude circle. Starting from the number indicating the latitude where you live, trace the arrow until it touches the amplitude circle. You can then read the degree on it which shows how far north or south of the east and west line the sun rises or sets. We are indebted to Professor Philip Fox, of the Dearborn Astronomical Observatory at Evanston, Illinois, for determining these points. The two outer circles are sun-dials for midsummer and midwinter day at the 40th degree of north latitude; and, if you imagined them pivoted on their rising and setting points and tipped up from the south to represent the slanting path of the sun during the day, they show the direction from which the sun is shining during successive hours of the day (or night on the other side of the world). The shaded portions of these circles represent night, which for all northern latitudes is short in summer and long in winter, as the day is short in winter and long in summer. If you examine the hour spaces on the winter dial of your winter night, you will find them exactly like those on the summer dial of your summer day. So also your winter day hours are spaced like your summer night hours. South of the equator, people have precisely the same experiences only in the reverse order. New Zealanders, we fancy, wear straw hats in January and fur caps in July. If you liked summer well enough and cared to move, you could live in a perpetual summer on our little globe. It is probable, however, that, like most people, you rather prefer the change of seasons, in spite of occasional extremes.
- 1916 Woman
- Latest Fashions, September 1841
- Cottage Piety
- The Cottage Fire-Side
- The flag Major Anderson carried with him from Fort Sumter
- Benjamin Franklin
- Pennsylvania, 35 H.P. Pennsylvania Auto Motor Co., Phil., Pa.
PRICE: $2,800 BODY: Mercedes SEATS: 5 persons WEIGHT: 2,550 pounds WHEEL-BASE: 111 inches TREAD: 56 inches TIRES, FRONT: 34 × 4 in. TIRES, REAR: 34 × 4 in. STEERING: Worm and nut BRAKES: Double on rear wheels SPRINGS: Front, 40 in. long; Rear, platform type FRAME: Pressed steel BORE: 4½ in.; STROKE: 5 in. CYLINDERS: 4 vertical, cast separate VALVE ARRANGEMENT: Same side MOTOR SUSPENSION: Direct from sub-frame COOLING: Water; cellular radiator IGNITION: Jump spark CURRENT SUPPLY: Storage battery CARBURETER: Schebler LUBRICATION: Force feed MOTOR-CONTROL: Spark and throttle CLUTCH: Cone CHANGE GEAR: Sliding type SPEEDS: 3 forward and reverse CHANGE-GEAR CONTROL: Selective system DRIVE: Shaft
- Marion Model 7, 22–24 H.P
Marion Model 7, 22–24 H.P. The Marion Motor Car Co., Indianapolis, Ind. PRICE: $2,000 BODY: Runabout SEATS: 2 persons WEIGHT: 1,750 pounds WHEEL-BASE: 100 inches TREAD: 55 inches TIRES, FRONT: 32 × 3½ inches TIRES, REAR: 32 × 3½ inches STEERING: Worm and sector BRAKES: Hub, internal and external SPRINGS: Semi-elliptic front, and full scroll rear FRAME: Pressed steel BORE: 4 in.; STROKE: 4 in. CYLINDERS: 4 separate VALVE ARRANGEMENT: Opposite sides MOTOR SUSPENSION: From side members of main frame COOLING: Water IGNITION: High-tension CURRENT SUPPLY: Storage battery CARBURETER: Schebler or Holley LUBRICATION: Force feed MOTOR-CONTROL: Spark and throttle CLUTCH: Multiple disc CHANGE GEAR: "Hassler" SPEEDS: 2 forward and reverse CHANGE-GEAR CONTROL: Side lever DRIVE: Shaft
- Wolfe, Model A, 24 H.P
Wolfe, Model A, 24 H.P. H. E. Wilcox Motor Car Company, Minneapolis, Minn. PRICE: $1,800 BODY: Side entrance, rear seat removable SEATS: 5 persons WEIGHT: 1,900 pounds WHEEL-BASE: 108 inches TREAD: 56 inches TIRES, FRONT: 34 × 3½ inches TIRES, REAR: 34 × 3½ inches STEERING: Worm and sector BRAKES: On rear hubs SPRINGS: Full elliptic FRAME: Pressed steel BORE: 4 in.; STROKE: 4 in. CYLINDERS: 4 vertical, tandem MOTOR SUSPENSION: On sub-frame COOLING: Air IGNITION: Jump spark CURRENT SUPPLY: Battery CARBURETER: Float-feed LUBRICATION: Mechanical force feed MOTOR-CONTROL: Spark and throttle CLUTCH: Cone CHANGE GEAR: Sliding type SPEEDS: 3 forward and reverse CHANGE-GEAR CONTROL: Side lever DRIVE: Side chain NOTE: Runabout body fitted to above chassis for a list of $1,700. Light delivery body also furnished on order.
- Buggyabout, Model C, 14 H.P
"Buggyabout," Model C, 14 H.P. Hatfield Motor Vehicle Co., Cortland, N. Y. PRICE: $750 BODY: Piano box convertible to commercial wagon SEATS: 4 persons WEIGHT: 900 pounds WHEEL-BASE: 101 inches TREAD: 56 inches TIRES, FRONT: 38 × 1½ inches TIRES, REAR: 42 × 1½ inches STEERING: Chain and sprocket (patented) BRAKES: 2 on differential sprockets, 2 emergency SPRINGS: Full elliptical FRAME: Wood sill, reinforced by angle iron BORE: 4½ in.; STROKE: 4 in. CYLINDERS: 2 opposed VALVE ARRANGEMENT: Automatic intake; mechanical exhaust MOTOR SUSPENSION: From sills COOLING: Air IGNITION: Jump spark CURRENT SUPPLY: Dry cells CARBURETER: Schebler LUBRICATION: Gravity feed MOTOR-CONTROL: Spark and throttle CLUTCH: None SPEEDS: 3 to 25 miles DRIVE: Friction drive (patented)
- Aurora, Model 'A,' 14–16 H.P
Aurora, Model "A," 14–16 H.P. Aurora Motor Works, North Aurora, Ill. PRICE: $650 BODY: Runabout body SEATS: 2 passengers WEIGHT: 1,000 pounds WHEEL-BASE: 80 inches TREAD: 56 inches TIRES, FRONT: 34 × 2 inches TIRES, REAR: 34 × 2 inches STEERING: Wheel steer; pinion gear BRAKES: Rear hub band brakes and transmission brakes SPRINGS: Half elliptical, front; full elliptical, rear FRAME: Angle steel BORE: 4½ in.; STROKE: 4 in. CYLINDERS: Double opposed horizontal, under hood VALVE ARRANGEMENT: Inlet and exhaust on opposite sides of motor MOTOR SUSPENSION: 3 point suspension COOLING: Water; triangular tube special radiator; thermo-siphon IGNITION: Jump spark CURRENT SUPPLY: Dry batteries CARBURETER: Holly LUBRICATION: Automatic force feed MOTOR-CONTROL: Spark and throttle on steering column CLUTCH: Cone CHANGE GEAR: Planetary transmission SPEEDS: 2 forward and 1 reverse CHANGE-GEAR CONTROL: Side lever DRIVE: Shaft driven
- Waltham-Orient, Model B R., 4 H.P
Waltham-Orient, Model B R., 4 H.P. Waltham Mfg. Co., Waltham, Mass. PRICE: $400 BODY: Runabout SEATS: 2 persons WEIGHT: 600 pounds WHEEL-BASE: 80 inches TREAD: 42 inches TIRES, FRONT: 26 × 2½ in. TIRES, REAR: 26 × 2½ in. STEERING: Tiller BRAKES: On rear hubs SPRINGS: Elliptical front and rear FRAME: Wood BORE: 3¼ in.; STROKE: 4¼ in. CYLINDERS: One in back VALVE ARRANGEMENT: Automatic inlet; mechanical exhaust MOTOR SUSPENSION: Rear on side members of frame COOLING: Air IGNITION: Jump spark CURRENT SUPPLY: Dry battery CARBURETER: Orient LUBRICATION: Oil pump MOTOR-CONTROL: Throttle and spark CLUTCH: Friction CHANGE GEAR: Friction SPEEDS: 5 forward, 2 reverse CHANGE-GEAR CONTROL: Side lever DRIVE: Friction drive NOTE: Furnished with 2 cylinder motor for $50 extra.
- Albany Run-a-bout, Model 2, 4–6 H. P
Albany Run-a-bout, Model 2, 4–6 H. P. Albany Automobile Co., Albany, Ind. PRICE: $300; with top BODY: Piano box SEATS: 2 persons WEIGHT: 500 pounds WHEEL-BASE: 62 inches TREAD: 52 inches TIRES, FRONT: 30 × 1¼ in., solid TIRES, REAR: 32 × 1¼ in., solid STEERING: Hand lever or tiller BRAKES: Foot brake on transmission SPRINGS: Full elliptic FRAME: Angle steel BORE: 4½ in.; STROKE: 4 in. CYLINDERS: 1, vertical, in front VALVE ARRANGEMENT: 3 port, side valves MOTOR SUSPENSION: From side members of frame COOLING: Water; pump IGNITION: Jump spark CURRENT SUPPLY: Dry battery CARBURETER: Universal; automatic mixture regulation LUBRICATION: Sight feed pressure MOTOR-CONTROL: Spark and throttle TRANSMISSION: Friction CHANGE SPEEDS: Slide of friction disk SPEEDS: 2 to 10 miles and reverse CHANGE-SPEED CONTROL: Side lever DRIVE: Center chain on differential sprocket
- Abraham Lincoln
- Mississippi steamboat ‘J. M. White,’ 1878
The light-draught Mississippi steamers bear little resemblance to the Hudson River and Long Island Sound boats while the American steam ferry-boat is a thing certainly not of beauty, but unique. The J. M. White, of 1878, was deemed “a crowning effort in steamboat architecture in the West.” She was 320 feet long and 91 feet in width, over the guards. Her saloons were magnificently furnished, and all her internal fittings of the most elaborate description. She carried 7,000 bales of cotton and had accommodation for 350 cabinpassengers. Her cost was $300,000. She was totally destroyed by fire in 1886.
- Fulton’s ‘Clermont’ on The Hudson, 1807
The Clermont made her first voyage from New York to Albany, August 7th, 1807. Her speed was about five miles an hour. During the winter of 1807-8 she was enlarged, her name being then changed to North River. She continued to ply successfully on the Hudson as a passenger boat for a number of years, her owners having acquired the exclusive right to navigate the waters of the State of New York by steam.
- The tunnels
The tunnels are passages for trains under mountains, hills and rivers. The tunnels are dark but the trains are well lighted. Electric motors are often used, this avoids the smoke of steam engines which is very unpleasant in the tunnels.
- The Stage coach
The Stage coach is used in the country where towns are few. The stages meet trains at the stations and take on passengers to be carried to their homes away from the railroad. Some of the stage routes are several hundred miles long.
- The Train Ferry
The Train Ferry carries entire trains across rivers where there are no bridges. Some of the largest train boats have several tracks and carry a train on each. The boats are tied in slips at the shore so that the tracks meet exactly those on the land.
- An observation train
An observation train is often made up to follow the great college boat races, where the railroad runs along the river bank. Flat cars are used with seats fixed on them for the spectators.
- The water tank
The water tank is seen frequently along the route of the railroads and plenty of water must be taken on and carried in the engine tender to make steam which is the power used to drive the big engines.
- The Round House
The Round House is the place where the railroad engines are kept when they are not working. The engines are turned around on a big turn table so each can be run on the different tracks which all lead to the turn-table in the centre.
- The Fireman's dog
The Fireman's dog goes to every fire, running beside the horses, barking a command to hurry. He gets to the fire hydrant first and sits there panting until the Firemen come up to attach the hose and turn on the water.
- The Fire Alarm
The Fire Alarm is sounded by a big gong in the station from street alarm boxes near where the fire occurs. The firemen know these alarm stations so well that they seldom look for the address, but dash off quickly to the correct place.
- The Hoze nozzle
The Hoze nozzle has been taken up to the roof of a building next the one afire and the firemen are sending the water into the upper floors of the burning building. The hose nozzle is very difficult for the firemen to hold.
- The brave fireman
The brave fireman rescues many people who are caught in burning buildings, in this way risking his life that others may be saved from the smoke and flames. Many people owe their lives to the bravery of the firemen.
- The Automobile Fire Engine
The Automobile Fire Engine can go to the fires very swiftly. Many times the saving of a few minutes by the firemen in reaching a fire means stopping the blaze before it becomes too great.
- Throw to first
Throw to first
- The Umpire
- The Manager of the team
The Manager of the team