Samnite Warriors (From painted vases)
The Romans completely beaten by the Samnites at the battle of the Caudine Forks
Archaic Horses and Chariots (from an archaic Greek Vase)
Bringing the horse to his knees
The common horses ridden by circus performers require some training before they are available in the “circle,” though it is slight compared with the instructions of the “trick” horses. The main thing is to break them to trot evenly and steadily around the ring.
An amusing scene often enacted in the ring is to have a horse 48seated on his haunches before a table, while the clown obsequiously serves him. A bell is attached to the table, so arranged that the horse can ring it by pulling at a bit of rag, and as the horse is almost continually ringing the bell, and the clown makes apparently frantic efforts to answer this summons each time, while bringing in plates, etc., a vast amount of laughter is usually created.
The long strap is the one which buckles around the foot. To a ring in this is buckled another strap seven or eight feet long. This is attached to the right foot and passes under the girth, or over the back. Its use is to raise the foot when you wish to bring the horse upon his knees.
Put the cord upon the horse, using the small loop; draw it with a steady pull; this brings the horse’s nose toward his body. Keep a firm hold upon the cord until he steps back a little, using at the same time the word “back.” Then caress him; by doing so you show him that he has done exactly as you wished him to, and the caresses should be repeated every time he obeys.
Preparing to lie down
One of the most common tricks displayed in circuses, and one which is usually hailed with applause, is what is termed the “pedestal” trick. A stout platform is used, to which is attached a wooden “drum” some two feet in height, out of which projects a wooden rod or post at a slight angle. The horse first steps upon the platform, then places one fore foot upon the drum, and lastly places his other fore foot upon the point of the projecting post. In this position a handsome animal forms a really beautiful picture, and the effect is sometimes enhanced by having a number of men raise the platform upon their shoulders, and bear the horse, high up above the heads of the spectators, like some equestrian statue, around the ring.
The word “whoa” should be used only to stop a horse when he is in motion. Never use it when you approach a horse standing quietly. Horses soon learn to distinguish any word often addressed to them, and they should learn to associate it with some definite and exact duty which you wish them to perform. If any word of command is used indiscriminately, or out of its proper place, the animal becomes confused and loses the association between the word and the object desired.
To teach a horse the meaning of the word “whoa,” the arrangement shown in the accompanying illustration may be used. Put the large web, previously described, around his near fore foot, pass it under the girth; and as the animal walks along, pull up the foot, saying at the same instant, “Whoa.” He will be brought to a stop, and by repeating the lesson he will soon raise the foot and stop even though the web is not pulled upon
A common breaching strap is used to strap up the foot. For using, open the loop, keeping the buckle on the outside, put the loop over foot, then raise foot and pass the strap around the fore-arm from the inside, and buckle it tight; this holds the foot up firmly.
Horses may be taught many amusing tricks, some of which are really wonderful. For teaching horses tricks the implements known as the Rarey straps are requisite, to teach the animal to lie down, etc. The piebald or spotted horses are generally supposed by trainers to be more tractable as well as to possess more talent than others.
The Horse lying down
After the horse has learned to take hold readily of anything offered to him, which knowledge he will have acquired if he has already learned to perform the tricks heretofore mentioned, the only additional instruction necessary will be to initiate him into the mysteries of turning the handle. When he has taken hold of the handle, gently move his head so as to produce the desired motion. If, when you let go of his head, he ceases the motion, speak sharply to him and put his head again in motion. With almost any horse a few lessons, and judicious rewards when he does what is required, will accomplish the object, and he will soon both be able and willing to grind out Old Dog Tray, or Norma, if not in exact time at least with as much correctness as many performers on this instrument.
The application of both straps
This machine, like a baker’s cart, is the kind of wheel carriage which is most common in the country, and such as even the high officers of state ride in, when performing land journies in bad weather, and the driver invariably sits on the shaft in the aukward manner here represented. They have no springs, nor any seat in the inside, the persons using them always sitting cross-legged on a cushion at the bottom. In these carts the gentlemen of Lord Macartney’s embassy who had not horses, were accommodated, over a stone pavement full of rutts and holes. When ladies use them, a bamboo screen is let down in front to prevent their being stared at by passengers, and on each side, the light is admitted through a square hole just large enough for a person’s head.
Of the Tartar horse another specimen has been given in this work. This represents a Tartar dragoon armed with the common instruments, the bow, and a short sabre. This corps is probably of little use beyond that of carrying dispatches, and assisting in the imperial hunts in the forests of Tartary. All the cavalry that were seen by the British Embassy had a mean, irregular, and most unsoldierlike appearance.
The annexed is a portrait of a true Tartar horse, which seems to be pretty much of the same breed as those of the Cossacks. The Chinese horses are precisely of the same kind. In fact, no pains whatever appear to be taken either for improving the breed, or by attention to their food, cleanliness, or regular exercise, to increase the size, strength, or spirit of the animal. A currycomb, or any substitute for it, is unknown in China. Indeed horses are not much in use. Wherever the nature of the country admits of canals or navigable rivers, travelling and conveyance of every kind are principally performed on the water.
A Pack Horse
We must remember that travelling was no such simple and easy matter then as it is now. As the planters in Virginia usually lived on the banks of one of the many rivers, the simplest method of travel was by boat, up or down stream. There were cross-country roads, but these at best were rough, and sometimes full of roots and stumps. Often they were nothing more than forest paths. In trying to follow such roads the traveler at times lost his way and occasionally had to spend a night in the woods. But with even such makeshifts for roads, the planter had his lumbering old coach to which, on state occasions, he harnessed six horses and drove in great style.
The love for hunting wild animals, such as the wolf, bear, and boar (see chapter on Hunting), from an early date took the place of the animal combats as far as the court and the nobles were concerned. The people were therefore deprived of the spectacle of the combats which had had so much charm for them; and as they could not resort to the alternative of the chase, they treated themselves to a feeble imitation of the games of the circus in such amusements as setting dogs to worry old horses or donkeys, &c.
Knight in War-harness, after a Miniature in a Psalter written and illuminated under Louis le Gros
The Rubbish Carter
Technologically there are several varieties of “rubbish,” or rather “dirt,” for such appears to be the generic term, of which “rubbish” is strictly a species. Dirt, according to the understanding among the rubbish-carters, would seem to consist of any solid earthy matter, which is of an useless or refuse character. This dirt the trade divides into two distinct kinds, viz.:—
1. “Soft dirt,” or refuse clay (of which “dry dirt,” or refuse soil or mould, is a variety).
2. “Hard-dirt,” or “hard-core,” consisting of the refuse bricks, chimney-pots, slates, &c., when a house is pulled down, as well as the broken bottles, pans, pots, or crocks, and oyster-shells, &c., which form part of the contents of the dustman’s cart.
The caravan soon reached the gates of Kouka, where, after a journey extending over two months and a half, they were received by a body of cavalry 4000 strong, under perfect discipline. Amongst these troops was a corps of blacks forming the body-guard of the sheikh, whose equipments resembled those of ancient chivalry.
Lancer of the army of the Sultan of Begharmi
Skeleton of the Horse
1.Skull, or skeleton of the head.
2.Cervical vertebræ or neck bones.
3.Dorsal vertebræ or back bones.
4.Lumbar vertebræ or loin bones.
5.Sacral vertebræ or rump bones.
6.Coccygeal vertebræ or tail bones.
7.Pelvic or hip bones.
8.Sternum or breast bone.
10.Scapula or shoulder blade.
11.Humerus or shoulder bone.
12.Radius or bone of the fore-arm.
13.Ulna or bone of the fore-arm.
14.Carpus or bones of the knee.
15.Os Melacarpi Magnus, metacarpal, or cannon bone.
16.Ossa Melacarpi Parva, or splint bones.
17.Proximal Phalanx, os suffraginis, or large pastern bone.
18.Great Sesamoid Bones.
19.Medium Phalanx, os coronæ, or small pastern bone.
20.Distal Phalanx, os pedis, or coffin bone.
21.Os Naviculare, small sesamoid, or shuttle bone.
22.Femur, or thigh bone.
23.Patella, or stifle bone.
24.Tibia, or leg bone.
25.Fibula. (This bone is little developed in the horse.)
26.Tarsus or hock bones.
27.Metatarsus, or os metatarsi magnus.
28.Ossa Metatarsi Parva, or splint bones of the hind leg.
Names of joints placed according to numbers.
I. Shoulder Joint.
II. Elbow Joint.
III.Carpus or knee joint.
IX.Tarsus or hock joint.
Anatomy of the Foot.—This illustration represents the foot of a horse sawed from above the fetlock down through the center of the foot. It shows the structure of the foot, the name of each part being given according to number.
1. Lower end of large metacarpal, or cannon bone.
2. Bursa, which secretes the joint oil that lubricates the place where the tendon, or cord, on the front of the leg passes down over the front of the fetlock joint. This is important as it sometimes gets injured and becomes enlarged. It is then called a bursal enlargement, and is of the same nature as a wind gall.
3. Fetlock joint.
4. Os suffraginis, or large pastern bone.
5. Pastern joint. This joint is important; when diseased it is the seat of a high ringbone.
6. Os coronae or small pastern bone.
7. Coffin joint. This joint is important, for when it is diseased it is known as a low ringbone.
8. Wall of the hoof.
9. Os pedis, or coffin bone.
10. Sensitive wall, or quick of the foot.
11. Sensitive sole, or quick of the foot.
12. Frog of the foot, or horney frog.
13. Plantar cushion, or fatty frog.
14. Navicular bone. This is also important, for when diseased it is the seat of navicular, or coffin joint lameness.
15. Back tendons below the fetlock.
16. Sesamoid, or fetlock bones.
18. Back tendons above the fetlock.
Digestive Apparatus of the Horse
6. Stomach (left sac).
8. Liver (upper extremity).
9. Great colon.
11. Small intestine.
12. Floating colon.
15. Left kidney and ureter.
a. Hard palate.
c. Soft palate.
e. Pulmonary artery (divided).
g. Posterior aorta.