In its centre is a large clear spherical nucleus, with a nucleolus. The body-substance is prolonged into five dendrites and an axon. Neuro-fibrillæ are seen in dendrites and axon. They traverse the body of the cell in all directions, in little bundles which are separated by angular granules of stainable substance (tigroids).
Sensory areas are enclosed by broken lines; certain centres in the association-zones are marked by dots. The sensory area of smell is on the inner aspect of the brain; so also is the area of vision which borders the calcarine and retrocalcarine fissures, and only rarely extends on to the external surface, as shown in the diagram. The sensory area of hearing is largely hidden within the fossa of Sylvius, the opening into which is indicated by the dark line above it. The kinæsthetic-sensory areas for the various muscles of the body occupy the territory between the dotted line in front and the bottom of the fissure of Rolando behind. They do not extend on to the posterior wall of this fissure. It is impossible at present to define the boundaries of any of the centres in the association-zones.
The slight depression in the retina in the axis of the globe is the fovea centralis, or yellow spot; the optic nerve pierces the ball to its inner or nasal side. The lens, with its suspensory ligament, separates the aqueous from the vitreous humour. On the front of the lens rests the iris, covered on its posterior surface with black pigment. On either side of the lens is seen a ciliary process, with the circular fibres of the ciliary muscle cut transversely, and its radiating fibres disposed as a fan.
A, after Exposure to Bright Light;
B, After Resting in the Dark.
The arrow shows the direction in which light traverses the retina.
C, Retinal epithelium, with its pigmented fringe. 1, Layer of rods and cones, separated by the external limiting membrane from 2, the layer of the nuclei of the rods and cones. 3, The ganglion-cells of the retina, which are homologous with the cells of the afferent root of a spinal nerve. Their peripheral axons ramify beneath the sensory epithelium (rods and cones and their nucleus-bearing segments), their central axons in 4, the inner molecular layer.
D, Collecting cells on the front of the retina; a a a, their axons which conduct impulses to the brain; b, an efferent fibre from the brain.
x, The common centre of curvature (nodal point of the several media). Rays which pass through this point are not deflected.
y, The principal focus of the system. All rays which are parallel to the optic axis converge to this point. The image of the point A is formed at a, the spot at which a ray parallel with the optic axis meets an unbent ray—the image of B at b.
From right to left, the figure shows the concha and lobule of the ear in profile; the external meatus (abbreviated); the drum, divided vertically, its posterior half visible; the hammer-bone, with the tip of its long arm attached to the drum, an arrow indicating the point of attachment and line of action of the tensor tympani muscle; the anvil attached by a ligament to the bony wall of the middle ear; the stirrup, with its foot-plate almost filling the oval window; the labyrinth, with the three semicircular canals above, and the scala vestibuli below. The curled black line shows the situation of the scala media, or ductus cochleæ (which contains the organ of Corti). Pulsations of sound which move the membrana tympani are transmitted by the three bones to the oval window. They shake the perilymph, producing waves which travel along the scala vestibuli to the apex of the cochlea, whence they return by the scala tympani to the round window (if they do not take a shorter course through the ductus cochleæ). The Eustachian tube opens out of the lower part of the middle ear.
The spiral lamina, on the left of the drawing, gives attachment to the membrane of Corti, which stretches to the opposite wall. Below the membrane is a bloodvessel which runs its whole length beneath the tunnel of Corti. The tunnel is formed by pillars—the inner on the left, the outer on the right—which meet above it. On the left of the inner pillar is a hair-cell; to the left of this a nerve-cell with two nuclei. To the right of the outer pillar is a space; to the right of this four hair-cells alternating with four supporting cells, which hold up the reticulated membrane through apertures in which the tufts of hairs project. Three nerve-fibres are seen in the spiral lamina; they cross the tunnel to ramify between the rows of outer hair-cells. The lamina tectoria rests upon the tufts of hairs.