The animals are steadying themselves by gripping a special rail with their trunks.
The orations of Cato are unhappily lost. But Cicero, a master of eloquence, and well enabled to compare them with similar compositions, passes upon them the highest eulogiums. The eloquence of Cato has been compared, for its force and energy, to the eloquence of that Demosthenes before whom Philip of Macedon quailed, and whose tremendous orations have given the name of Philippics to all sarcastic and vehement invectives.
Shape. This garment varied in width across the shoulders. The
greater the distance between the neck-hole and the edge of the top
corner (see A B), the more the upper arm was hidden. This has the misleading effect of a sleeve to the elbow.
The Romans had a great aversion to anything in the nature of a close arm covering, so the fashion of wearing long shaped separate sleeves, set by
Alexander the Great, was not followed at Rome, as it was considered unmanly; besides, such sleeves were worn by foreigners and barbarians, so naturally this mode was distasteful to the patriotic intolerance
of a Roman citizen.
The Greek " kolobus," called by the Romans the "colobium." Another name for this garment was the "tunica". When more than one was worn, the under ones were called the "tunica interior" or "subucula." A long tunica was called "tunica talaris."
A cloak of cloth copied from the Greek peasants. It was in common use among all classes, both men and women, as a travelling or rain cloak, and was an important garment with the peasantry. In colour it was dark,
and in shape a semicircle with the straight
edges fastened down the centre-front, converting it into a bell or funnel. Alternatively, the edges were sewn
together down the front; but in either case it fitted close round the
figure. A hole was left for the head, which was usually encircled with a
Another is afforded by the account of the two men whom Joshua sent out as spies. They came into a harlot’s house at Rabbah—a brothel, in fact, where, as at Rome in the Imperial age, the woman sat impudently, without a veil, at the door, and solicited the passers by. They wore peculiar clothing.
A Sambuca or triangular harp
The British museum contains a mosaic figure of a Roman girl playing the tibia, which is stated to have been disinterred in the year 1823 on the Via Appia. Here the holmos or mouth-piece, somewhat resembling the reed of our oboe, is distinctly shown. The finger-holes, probably four, are not indicated, although they undoubtedly existed on the instrument.
The tuba was a straight trumpet. Both the cornu and the tuba were employed in war to convey signals. The same was the case with the buccina,—originally perhaps a conch shell, and afterwards a simple horn of an animal,—and the lituus, which was bent at the broad end but otherwise straight.
To the Etruscans is also attributed by some the invention of the hydraulic organ. The Greeks possessed a somewhat similar contrivance which they called hydraulos, i.e. water-flute, and which probably was identical with the organum hydraulicum of the Romans. The instrument ought more properly to be regarded as a pneumatic organ, for the sound was produced by the current of air through the pipes; the water applied serving merely to give the necessary pressure to the bellows and to regulate their action. The pipes were probably caused to sound by means of stops, perhaps resembling those on our organ, which were drawn out or pushed in. The construction was evidently but a primitive contrivance, contained in a case which could be carried by one or two persons and which was placed on a table. The highest degree of perfection which the hydraulic organ obtained with the ancients is perhaps shown in a representation on a coin of the emperor Nero, in the British museum. Only ten pipes are given to it and there is no indication of any key board, which would probably have been shown had it existed. The man standing at the side and holding a laurel leaf in his hand is surmised to represent a victor in the exhibitions of the circus or the amphitheatre. The hydraulic organ probably was played on such occasions; and the medal containing an impression of it may have been bestowed upon the victor.
The first persecution, in the primitive ages if the church, was begun by that cruel tyrant Nero Domitius, the sixth emperor of Rome. This monarch reigned , for the space of five years, with tolerable credit to himself, but then gave way to the greatest extravagane of temper, and to the most atrocious barbarities. Among other diabolical outrages, he ordered that the city of Rome should be set on fire, which was done by his officers, guards, and servants.
Samnite Warriors (From painted vases)
The Romans completely beaten by the Samnites at the battle of the Caudine Forks
Roman Coin Struck to Commemorate the Victory over Pyrrhus and His Elephants.