The Neolithic or New Stone Age: Circa 10,000 B.C. The people of this period constituted a fifth race of mankind, of moderate stature and slender proportions. Those who resided on the western side of the island now known as Great Britain were dark, and of the Iberian type. Those on the eastern side were fair, and very like the Gauls.
Circa 35,000-15,000 B.C. This date, 35,000 B.C., is given as the end of the Early Paleolithic Age and beginning of the Late Paleolithic Age. A fourth race, the Cro Magnon or " True Man " Type, lived during this period, and was akin to the Eskimo of the present day. These people occupied the cave-dwellings of their predecessors, but led a much freer life in the open.
A second race of Subman, named " Eoanthropos " or " Dawn Man," was in existence (circa) 110,000 B.C. Their only weapons were branches torn from the trees
The first race of Man (circa 550,000 B.c.) is called the
"Pithecanthropos Erectus," or Ape Man. They were powerfully built individuals, with low foreheads, prominent bony ridges above the eyes, and retreating chins. Their forearms were heavy and clumsy, their thigh-bones bent and their shin-bones short, so they must have been bow-legged and awkward in gait. This type of human being became differentiated from animals because development of the faculty of primitive speech enabled them to sustain thought and created memory.
They probably used a multitude and variety of wooden implements also; they had probably learnt much about the shapes of objects and the use of different shapes from wood, knowledge which they afterwards applied to stone; but none of this wooden material has survived; we can only speculate about its forms and uses. As the weather hardened to its maximum of severity, the Neanderthal men, already it would seem acquainted with the use of fire, began to seek shelter under rock ledges and in caves—and so leave remains behind them. Hitherto they had been accustomed to squat in the open about the fire, and near their water supply. But they were sufficiently intelligent to adapt themselves to the new and harder conditions.