The two vertical lines are exactly the same length—measure them and see. Short lines turned back at either end make one seem short; extended lines make the other seem longer.
These two illusions are almost duplicated in the dresses above. As a result one woman looks shorter and heavier, the other taller and slenderer than she really is.
These unbroken parallel vertical lines give the definite impression of height. This principle, used in the design of the dress above, lends it a pleasing slender appearance because no other lines interfere with the straight line effect.
Here, also, are two vertical parallel lines. They are straight—test them—but the other lines radiating from the center, make them appear “bowed.” In the dress above a similar design makes the wearer appear stouter and heavier than she really is.
These two diamond-shaped figures are exactly the same size. The crosswise line makes one seem wider, the vertical line makes the other seem narrower.
Now note how these same principles used in the dresses above effect the apparent size and weight of those wearing them, making one seem much stouter than the other.
The middle lines in the two small diagrams are the same length. But on the left, shorter accompanying lines seem to shorten the one between. On the right longer accompanying lines seem to lengthen the one between.
Now see how the woman in the other picture has unknowingly emphasized her stoutness while the one in this picure has properly gained a slender effect by using trimming in accordance with the principles of these optical illusions.
The oblique line in the figure is made to seem longer and more graceful than the dress below by the parallel vertical lines of embroidery which intersect it and so emphasize its appearance of length and grace.
When styles call for plaits, plaits may be used, but not in widening flares as shown here, rather in slenderizing length lines as shown below
Hats and shoes in these two pictures also illustrate incorrect and correct choice. The wide hat and prominent straps below emphasize width and weight; the neat hat and cross-strap slippers here help to slenderize
These two pictures illustrate improper and proper choice of fabrics for a stout figure. Above, the large-figured material adds size, the fur trim shortens, the round beads shorten the neck. All conspire to emphasize weight.
Here a small all-over pattern minimizes size, the plaits and tassels lengthen, the necklace adds a slenderizing touch. The appearance as a whole is graceful and youthful.
Would you believe that the pattern of these two dresses is exactly the same? This illustrates how you can vary a dress once you find the foundation lines that are becoming to you. One pattern can suffice for both a tailored and an afternoon dress, as you see both effects are pleasing in their slenderness.
These two examples show how even a hat with drooping brim, if not too wide, can be worn by the stout person if trimming is adeptly used to direct the vision upward and lend an illusion of height.
Here trimming is used on two entirely different types of hats to give in each case added height to the figure and help in attaining a slenderizing appearance.
Left—Hats with medium brims and high trimming are often becoming, especially if wide enough to avoid the pyramid effect.
Right—High built trimming and delicate veils are advantageous where a double chin is the handicap.
Note the diagonal line in the small diagram of the figure below. It is actually straight, but the vertical lines which break it give it a “going-down-steps” appearance. This principle is used in the dress below—the two vertical panels of trimming break the line of the tunic and give the whole figure a more slender appearance than in the figure above.
Catching the football
Kicking the football
Of famous aeroplanes at Rheims, five types stood out by themselves—the Farman, the Voisin, the Wright, the Bleriot, and the Antoinette, all of which have been described. But there was one other, which few people had heard of before it appeared here. This was the Curtiss biplane, built by an American named Glenn H. Curtiss, and engined with a motor which also bore his name. Curtiss had experimented with many power-driven machines—motor-cycles, motor-cars, airships, and aeroplanes—and had won a prize in America with a small, light biplane, and it was a craft of this type—as seen in the figure —that he brought with him to Rheims, his idea being to compete for the speed prize. The machine had a front elevator and tail-planes, according to the practice in biplane construction; but an innovation was the setting of the ailerons midway between the main-planes—a position that will be noted in the sketch; another novelty was the way these ailerons operated. At the pilot’s back, as he sat in his driving seat, was an upright rod with two shoulder-pieces—by means of which, should he shift his body, he could swing the rod from side to side. Wires ran from the rod to the ailerons; and if the pilot leaned over, say, to the right, he drew down the ailerons on the left side of the machine. The merit of such a control was that it was instinctive; that is to say, should the biplane tip down on one side, it was natural for the pilot to lean away from the plane-ends that were sinking; and he operated the ailerons automatically, as he did this, and so brought the machine level again.
B. Pilot’s seat and control-wheel
E. Motor and propeller
F. Tail-plane and rudder.
There needs to be an equipment of spare machines also; and a number of travelling workshops with skilled engineers, which can be rushed from place to place for the repair of damaged craft. A sketch of one of these workshops on wheels, which are vital to the organisation, is seen in the figure
At the beginning of 1909 there were two types of successful aeroplane—the Wright and the Voisin. Bleriot had flown with his monoplane and flown well; but he was still in the process of evolving a practical machine, and several other inventors were in a similar stage. It was the Wright and the Voisin which had proved their worth; and the Wright, as has been said, was the better of the two. Of the Voisin, as flown in 1909, a reproduction is given in the figure. It was a heavier aeroplane than the Wrights’, owing largely to the weight of its alighting gear (250 lbs.) and of its big balancing tail (more than 100 lbs.); hence the necessity for using a 50-h.p. motor, which drove a two-bladed metal propeller at the rate of 1200 revolutions a minute. The Voisin brothers, and other French makers, did not approve of the two-propeller system of the Wrights: they preferred one screw, revolving at high speed. But there was no doubt—at any rate in this stage of aviation—that the Wright method was more efficient than that of the Frenchmen. It was calculated, indeed, that the Wright biplane, when actually in the air, could be driven at an expenditure of only 15 h.p.; whereas the Voisin, even with its 50-h.p. motor running at full speed, had only just enough power to fly.
A. Elevating plane
B. Pilot’s seat
D. Engine and propeller
E. Landing chassis
F. Balancing tail
The Voisin Biplane - top view
An experimenter who braved this apathy and won his way until he became a constructor of aircraft, was Mr. A. V. Roe. For some time he was an advocate of the triplane form of machine—a craft, that is to say, with three main-planes fitted one above another. The machine with which he obtained flights, although they were very brief, is seen in the figure. Subsequently, however, Mr. Roe adopted the biplane form. His distinction in the pioneer days was that he managed to make his triplane lift into the air and fly a short distance, with the aid of a motor-cycle engine developing no more than 9 h.p.
A.A.A. Three main-planes
C. Four-bladed propeller
D.D.D. Triplane tail
F. Landing gear.
D. Pilot’s seat
E. Landing chassis
F. Combined tail and elevating-planes
The Bleriot Monoplane - top view showing its bird-like shape and the position of the pilot.
At the beginning of 1909 a new monoplane made its appearance in France—a powerful, finely constructed, and very stable machine. It was the Antoinette, designed by a famous engineer, and it was this craft which interested Latham. M. Levavasseur was the designer of it and of a specially lightened motor, first applied to motor-boats, and afterwards to the experimental biplane of M. Santos-Dumont and also to the aeroplane with which Farman first flew. The Antoinette, which M. Levavasseur also fitted with one of his motors, was a large monoplane—far larger than the Bleriot; and built not with the idea of being a fair-weather machine, but to fly in winds. The span of its wings was 46 feet, and they contained 365 square feet of sustaining surface, while the total weight was 1040 lbs.
D. Pilot’s seat and controlling wheel
E.E. Vertical rudders
G. Landing gear.
showing the spread of the planes and tail, and the delicate taper of the long, canoe-shaped body.
Another ardent worker in England, and one destined to become famous, was Mr. S. F. Cody. After developing a system of man-lifting kites which the British War Office acquired, he joined the military aircraft factory that had been established at Farnborough. Here, after tests with dirigible balloons, he began the construction of experimental biplanes—all machines of large size. Early in 1909 he made brief flights—the longest being one of about 250 yards. Then, after alterations to his machine, he managed in July to fly a distance of 4 miles. This he increased afterwards to 8 miles; and then on 1st September flew for 1 hour 3 minutes, rising to a height of 300 feet. Cody’s biplane was a very large machine, having 1000 square feet of lifting surface—twice that of the Farman or Voisin. Driving it was an 80-h.p. engine, which operated two propellers on the system used by the Wrights. With its pilot on board the machine weighed 2170 lbs.
A. Elevating-planes and vertical-plane
B. Pilot’s control lever
G. Landing gear
H. Rear skid.
showing the large size of the elevators, the position of the pilot, and the placing of the propellers.
A coastal sea-plane, as now planned, is a craft having, say, two engines, each devolving 120 h.p., with a wing span of some 80 feet, and an accommodation in its hull for three men—the pilot, a combatant with a machine-gun, and an observer with an installation of wireless. But types are changing constantly, and the tendency is to build larger craft. A machine weighing a couple of tons is shown, and a novelty in regard to it is that it has wheels upon either side of its boat-shaped car, upon which it can move on land, and which fold upward when it rests upon the water.
A. Hull upon which the machine floats when in the sea
B.B.B. Wheels upon which it may move when on land, and which fold upward when it is on the water
C. Pilot’s controlling wheel
D.D. Main sustaining planes
E. Four-bladed propeller driven by chain-gearing from engine within the hull.
To meet the demand for a purely scouting machine, in which pilot and passenger shall have a clear field for observation, both above and below, a monoplane has been designed which is called the “parasol.” This machine, a Morane-Saulnier, is shown. The two sustaining wings, forming a single surface, are raised above the body so that its occupants have nothing to impede their view earthward; and they can also see above them—an advantage of course in time of war, seeing that an enemy might be hovering overhead
A. Engine and propeller
B. Plane raised above hull
C. Seats for pilot and passenger
When petrol engines became available, they gave an impetus to the building of airships; for, like the aeroplane, the airship needed a motive agent which gives a high power for a low weight. One of the first to use a petrol motor in an airship with success was M. Santos-Dumont, whose name has been mentioned in connection with aeroplanes. He tested small, light airships, driven by petrol engines and two-bladed propellers—as illustrated in figure; and with one of these, on a calm, still day, he flew over Paris and round the Eiffel Tower.
A. Gas envelope
B. Wheeled framework which carried motor, propeller, and pilot’s seat
D. Horizontal rear-plane
A. Lower part of aeroplane’s hull
B. Revolving barrel to which bombs are clipped
D. Releasing mechanism operated by marksman in machine.
Airships, like aeroplanes, are being armed with guns and bombs; and their power of raising weights enables them to carry heavy weapons. Large and highly destructive bombs have been tested in the German airships, being released over the sea and aimed at targets in the form of rafts. Latest-type airships also carry guns in their cars; and the Zeppelins have a platform upon the tops of their hulls, reached by a ladder through the middle of the ship, from which a machine-gun can be fired upward. This is a very necessary precaution, and is intended to frustrate the attack of an aeroplane. It would be the aim of the latter, whenever possible, to manœuvre above its big enemy—as suggested in figure —and drop a bomb upon its hull. Hence the construction of the top platform of the airship, from which her gunners can direct a vigorous fire aloft.
Hand Grenade No. 5, known as Mills’ Hand Grenade. Mills’ Hand Grenade No. 5 weighs about one and one-half pounds and is in constant and steady use at the front, being the best known of all grenades. It consists of an oval cast iron case, containing explosives and serrated to provide numerous missiles on detonation. In the center is a spring striking pin, kept back by a lever or handle, which, in its turn, is held in position by a safety pin.
There are three kinds of bombs: (1) percussion; (2) ignition;, and (3) mechanical. It is not possible to describe every bomb in use under these three headings, but the most typical are selected for description, although it does not follow that they are all in use at the present time, but will give a fairly good idea of what is required.
1. Hand Grenade No. 1.
2. Hand Grenade No. 2, formerly known as Mexican Hand Grenade.
3. Rifle grenade No. 3, formerly known as Hale’s Rifle Grenade.
Hand Grenade No. 1 consists of a brass case screwed on to a block of wood, to which is fixed a small cane handle about half way up the case. Outside it is a cast iron ring serrated into 16 parts. The upper end is covered by a moveable cap with a striker pin in the center. On the cap are the words “Remove,” “Travel,” and “Fire” in duplicate. These are marked in red and can be made to correspond with red pointers painted on case. To prepare a bomb, turn cap so that pointer is at “Remove,” take off cap, insert detonator in hole and turn it to the left until the spring on the flange is released and goes into position under the pin; replace cap and turn to “Travel,” which is a safety position. When the bomb is to be thrown, turn cap to “Fire” and then remove safety pin. This bomb explodes on impact, and to insure its falling on the head, streamers are attached. Care should be taken that streamers do not get entangled. The bomb must be thrown well into the air.
Hand Grenade No. 7—Grenade heavy friction pattern.
Hand Grenades Nos. 6 and 7 consist of metal cases filled with T.N.T and a composite explosive and are exactly alike, except that No. 7 contains shrapnel bullets or scrap iron, while No. 6 contains only explosive. At the top of each case is a place to fix the friction igniter, which is supplied separately. When these bombs are to be used, detonator fuse and igniter are put in and firmly fixed. Before throwing the becket on, head of igniter should be pulled smartly off.
Ball Hand Grenade.
The Ball Hand Grenade consists of a cast iron sphere, 3 inches in diameter, filled with ammonal and closed by a screwed steel plug which has attached to it a covered tube to take detonator in the center of grenade. It is also lighted by a Brock lighter.
Players Navy Cut
USEFUL FUR COAT, as sketch, in good Seal Musquash, made from reliable skins, lined new striped chiffon taffeta silk.
Price 13-½. Gns.
Actual value. 19-½ Gns.
NEW MOLESKIN SET, as sketch, worked from full selected British skins.
Special price, STOLE, 69/6
5 Gns. the set. Actual value 8 gns.
New model fur coat
NEW MODEL FUR COAT, as sketch, in Natural Musquash, worked from reliable skins, with handsome skunk collar and handsome belt at back.
Price 16-½ Gns.
Actual value 25 Gns.
NEW FUR SET, as sketch, in Natural Skunk, worked from dark selected skins, recommended for hard wear.
Special price, STOLE, 19-½ Gns.
MUFF, 12-½ Gns.
29 Gns. the Set. Actual value, 39 gns.
The food that
"Builds Bonnie Babies"
Awarded Gold Medal, International Medical Congress Exhibition, 1913. By Royal Appointment to the Court of Spain.
This is because Glaxo is enriched milk, made germ-free by the Glaxo Process, which also breaks down the nourishing curd of the milk into minute, easily digested particles. When mixed with boiling water, Glaxo at once forms a modified milk which is natural (not artificial) nourishment—a complete food for baby from birth.
While easily digestible, Glaxo is not pre-digested, and therefore promotes a healthy activity of the digestive organs without subjecting them to undue strain.
Taken as a "night-cap" by Adults, Glaxo induces sound, healthy sleep.
Ask your Doctor!
Glaxo is British Made and British Owned, and only British Labour is employed. Like all things British, Glaxo is thoroughly good and genuine.
GLAXO BABY BOOK FREE—Trial Tin 3d.
sent on request by GLAXO, 47R,
King's Road, St. Pancras, London, N.W.
Proprietors: Joseph Nathan & Co., Ltd.,
Wellington, N.Z.; & London.
Ships the British, and the German, navy might have had! Designs by the Kaiser and other naval theorists.
The first illustration on this page is a design for a battle-ship made by the Kaiser in 1893, to replace the old "Preussen," then out of date. The vessel was to carry four large barbettes and a huge umbrella-like fighting-top.
Illustration No. 2 is an Immersible Ironclad, designed by a French engineer named Le Grand, in 1862. In action the vessel was to be partly submerged, so that only her three turrets and the top of the armoured glacis would be visible.
No. 3 is Admiral Elliott's "Ram," of 1884. The ship was to carry a "crinoline" of stanchions along her water-line, practically a fixed torpedo-net.
No. 4 is Thomas Cornish's Invulnerable Ironclad, of 1885. She was to have two separate parallel hulls under water; above she was of turtle-back shape.
Ships the British navy might have had! Freaks of marine architecture that have not been officially adopted.
We illustrate here some curious designs for war-ships by various inventors.
No. 1 is McDougal's Armoured Whale-back, with conning-towers, a design of 1892 for converting whalebacks into war-vessels.
No. 2 is an American design of 1892, Commodore Folger's Dynamite Ram, cigar-shaped, with two guns throwing masses of dynamite or aerial torpedoes.
No. 3 is a design by the Earl of Mayo in 1894 and called "Aries the Ram," built round an immense beam of steel terminating in a sharp point,
No. 4 is Gathmann's boat for a heavy gun forward, designed in 1900. She was to be of great speed, and the forward gun was to throw 600 lb. of gun-cotton at the rate of 2000 feet per second. A formidable Armada this, had it been practicable.
The Most Economical Food for your Baby
is either Breast Milk or Glaxo
An aeroplane is a necessity in times of peace
German plane crashed into an American warship
Air raid siren in Paris
British plane flying over the trenches in the great war
The seaplane shoots off the catapult
The depth bomb destroys a U-Boat
Some types of American and foreign aeroplanes
Some types of American and foreign aeroplanes
Ship saved by life line thrown from a rescue airship
[Not sure what it did to save the boat]
Scouting over the ruined region between the lines (no man’s land)
Plane going down in flames
Pilot and passenger
Original Wright Biplane
Naval battle with planes launched from ships
Dropping off in parachute from flaming balloon
Battle between aeroplane and British tank
Aviators taking photographs
An aeroplpane in war
A couple with their four children
Woman writing letters at cluttered Victorian desk
Mother and Child
Jean-Christophe, the dominant figure of the enormous work which Rolland was a score of years in writing, and nearly half a score in publishing, is gradually becoming a household name upon two continents.
“Jean-Christophe” is the detailed life of a man from the cradle to the grave, a prose epic of suffering, a narrative of the evolution of musical genius, a pæan to music, and a critique of composers, the history of an epoch, a comparative study of the civilizations of France and Germany, an arraignment of society, a discussion of vexed problems, a treatise on ethics, a “barrel” of sermons, a storehouse of dissertations, and a blaze of aspirations.
Chauffeur driving two ladies
Chauffeur opening door for a lady
Thomas A Edison
The 8 h.p. twin cylinder Uni, with wheel steering and free engine. The power plant slides upon rails at the rear platform by means of a cable actuated from the lever beside the driver
The 16 h.p. Uni-motorcycle, with spring suspension, magneto ignition, free engine and wheel steering.