The accompanying cut is a good restoration of the Gallic harvester of Pliny's day. Palladius wrote the De re Rustica in the fourth century A. D. and gives a good description of this contrivance, which was similar to our "heading-machines," having a row of sharp teeth at the front edge, between which the straw passed, the head being torn off at the angle where the teeth met, and falling into the box of the machine.
The description of Palladius is as follows: —" In the plains of Gaul, they use this quick way of reaping, and without reapers cut large fields with an ox in one day. For this purpose a machine is made, carried upon two wheels; the square surface has boards erected at the side, which sloping outward, make a wider space above; the board on the fore part is lower than the others; upon it there are a great many small teeth, wide set in a row, answering to the hight of the can of the corn, and turned upward at the ends; on the back part of this machine two short shafts are fixed, like the poles of a litter; to these an ox is yoked with his head to the machine, and the yoke and traces likewise turned the contrary way: he is well trained, and does not go faster than he is driven. When this machine is pushed through the standing corn, all the ears are comprehended by the teeth, and heaped up in the hollow part of it, being cut off from the straw, which is left behind; the driver setting it higher or lower, as he finds it necessary; and thus, by a few goings and returnings, the whole field is reaped. This machine does very well in plain and smooth fields, and in places where there is no necessity for feeding with straw."
Binding and pulling grain in the Egypt of the pharaohs
Farming instruction book 1601
Trenching Implements 17th Century
Seventeenth Century Plows
Peasant Woman and Churn
The ploughs used by these Syrian cultivators are little more than a bent wooden stock, having a long bar, by which it may be drawn. The lend of the stock is in shape somewhat like that which is formed by a human foot and leg, the foot being the 'share,' which scratches up the soil. That part which corresponds to the leg is prolonged upwards into a long handle, with the help of which the ploughman guides the plough. The bar by which the plough is drawn is attached to the inner or fore side of the bend, at the ankle, as it were. Two oxen of a small kind are, as a rule, attached to each plough.
First American Reaper - Hussey
Portable Steam Engine, 1877. Portable steam engines provided belting power on farms to run threshing machines, circular saws, etc. This Frick model steam engine operated regularly from 1877 to 1949.
Building Hay Stacks
The figure shows how Raymond's Elevator is mounted for stack building. These poles need not be so heavy as when three poles alone are used. They are kept from being drawn over toward each other in elevating heavy loads, by lashing the lower end of each outer pole to a strong sake, driven into the ground obliquely, by first making a hole with a crow-bar. OIt is convenient to place the two pole tripodssufficiently from each other to give room for the stack, or rick,and to allow the wagon to pass within them.
The elevator first lifts its load, then carries it along the rope till the man on the load drops it by a jerk of the cord.
Dedericks Hay Press
One of the best hay presses in the country is one manufactured by L. & P.K Dederick, Albany, and represented in the engraving. It is worked by one or two horses, operating with great force by means of the arms on each side, which ar e connected with toggle joint levers. The hay is thrown in from the upper platform and when reduced to compact bales, by means of the powerful force which this press gives, is taken out at the lower.