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The Farman Biplane

The Farman Biplane.jpg CoachingThumbnailsThe Farman Biplane - top viewCoachingThumbnailsThe Farman Biplane - top viewCoachingThumbnailsThe Farman Biplane - top view

In July, at Rheims, there was to be the great flying meeting; and Farman had made up his mind to wait for this. Aided by the experience he had gained with the Voisin machine, he had designed a craft which should be generally more efficient and faster in flight, and more quickly responsive to its controls. The biplane he produced, marking as it did a step forward in construction, is a machine that needs description. The general appearance of the craft is indicated by Fig. 46, while an illustration of this type of machine in flight will be found on Plate VII. A feature of the Voisin that Farman discarded was the vertical panel fitted between the main-planes to give sideway stability. An objection to these planes was that they added to the weight of the machine and checked its speed, tending also to drive it from its course should there be a side wind. But in taking away such fixed balancing-planes, Farman had to substitute another device; and what he did was to work upon the same theory as the Wrights had done, and obtain a similar result in a different way. They, it will be remembered, had warped the rear portions of their main-planes. Farman kept his planes rigid, but fitted to their rear extremities four narrow, hinged planes, or flaps, which could be moved up and down and were called ailerons. Their effect was the same as with the Wright wing-warp. When a gust tilted the machine, the pilot drew down the ailerons upon the side that was inclined downward; whereupon the air-pressure, acting upon the drawn-down surfaces, restored the machine to an even keel.

A. Elevating-plane;
B.B. Main-planes;
C. Pilot’s seat;
D. Motor and propeller;
E. Petrol tank;
F.F. Hinged balancing-planes, or ailerons;
G.G. Tail-planes;
H.H. Twin vertical rudders;
I. Landing wheels and skid