The Lunar Orbiter project was initiated in 1963 as part of the U.S. Apollo program to land men on the Moon during the decade of the nineteen sixties.
Lunar Orbiter’s primary mission was to take and transmit both wide-angle and closeup images of the Moon. Lunar Orbiters photographed many areas of scientific interest and provided general photographic coverage of much of the moon’s surface. These pictures were then used to select the best landing sites for the first manned lunar landings. Orbiters also showed that the moon’s gravitational field permitted stable orbits.
Lunar Orbiter 1 was launched atop an Atlas-Agena D rocket on August 10, 1966. The last in the project, Lunar Orbiter 5, was launched on August 1, 1967. All five missions were successful.
The first three missions were similar. After each launch, the Agena stage’s booster engine was fired to send the spacecraft on a 90-hour coasting trajectory to the Moon, about 386,160 kilometers (240,000 miles) distant.
As the spacecraft neared the Moon, its on-board engine was fired as a retrorocket to slow the Orbiter and permit it to go into orbit around the Moon.
Two early types of liquid-fuel, rocket motors. Left, the original ARS motor; right, a four-nozzle motor for ARS No. 4 rocket.
Thrust stud for fastening to rocket
Thrust and fuel column attached to rocket
The Apollo Lunar Hand Tool Carrier holds 32 kilograms (70 pounds) of equipment, including a trenching tool, two geology scoops, four rock bags, a portable magnetometer, and five cameras.
Launched into earth orbit on May 14, 1973, Skylab was a research center that housed three-man crews on three different visits to the space station. The longest mission lasted nearly three months.
M131 chair control
Sleep compartment 70 sq ft
Head 30 sq ft
Wardroom 97 sq ft
M507 gravity substitute work bench
Experiment compartment 181 sq ft
M171 gas analyzer
M171 helmet stowage
Electric power control console
M131 rotating chair
The German-developed V-1 was an automatically controlled pilotless aircraft for use against Allied cities during World War II.
The missile was launched from ground ramps. Once in the air, automatic controls on board the craft took over. The V-1 climbed to a predetermined altitude, followed a compass course, and dove to the ground after a preset distance had been covered.
This mid-wing monoplane was powered by a unique pulsejet engine above the rear portion of the fuselage.
The relatively low speed of the missile made it easy prey for antiaircraft guns or fighters.