88-mm multi-purpose gun - Travelling Position
88-mm multi-purpose gun - Firing Position
Small-size one-man flame-thrower
15-mm aircraft cannon
20-mm aircraft cannon
75-mm recoilless gun
The light chariots of the Egyptians enabled them to secure the fullest advantage from the speed and breeding of their horses, which at the time were considered to be the finest in the world. The Egyptian chariots were sometimes square, but more often they were semi-circular or horse-shoe shape, with the curved front towards the horses.
2 cm Flakvierling 38 ready for transport on special trailer
German 105-mm Gun - Howitzer
Their arrowheads and spearheads, axes, knives, and other tools and weapons were of copper obtained from Lake Superior mines, or of stone suitable for the purpose.
Musketeer wearing a bandolier.
Note how he pours the charge from one cylinder down the muzzle.
From De Gheyn.
There were several ways of carrying this ammunition. The powder was normally either in a flask or bandolier; the shot in a soft leather pouch. When going into action, a soldier often took his bullets from his pouch and put them in his mouth so he could spit them into the barrel of his gun and save time in loading.
Patrero or “murderer”
In 1627 Isaak De Rasieres visited Plymouth and noted that the Pilgrims had six cannon of unspecified types in their fort and four “patreros” mounted in front of the governor’s house at the intersection of the two streets of the town.
A seventeenth century musketeer ready to fire his matchlock.
From Jacques de Gheyn, Maniement d’Armes, 1608.
The military supplies which the Pilgrims brought with them may be divided into three major categories: defensive armor, edged weapons, and projectile weapons. A completely armed man, especially in the first years, was usually equipped with one or more articles from each of the three groups, usually a helmet and corselet, a sword, and a musket.
The carriage-body consists of two steel brackets forming cheeks and trail. They are reinforced by angle-steel and connected by transoms. The axle is secured in beds riveted to the brackets, and is arranged to be readily dismounted when required. The elevating-gear consists of a simple screw working in a stout steel transom, and supports the breech of the gun; the preponderance is sufficient to insure stability. The sponge and rod are secured to the right side of the trail by suitable attachments. A pole is provided for draught when easy country is encountered, and provision is made for attaching it to the lunette.
The Mechanism.—(b) breech-block; loading-hole; (s) stop-bolt; spring washer; (r) stop-bolt guide; (e) extractor; (h) extractor-hook; (a k) extractor-guide; (c) locking-screw; locking-screw shaft; locking-screw pin; (l) handle; stop; stop keep-screw.
Action of the mechanism
The gun having been fired, the handle is turned to the rear, unlocking the block and starting it in the mortise. Drawing the handle smartly to the right, the breech is opened, the extractor, actuated by the movement of the block, commences to move very slowly back with a powerful leverage, starting the cartridge-case from its seat. When the breech-block has moved sufficiently to unmask the bore, the change of direction in the extractor-guide causes the extractor to make a quick movement to the rear, throwing the cartridge clear of the gun.
A new charge being inserted, it is pushed home until the head of the cartridge brings up against the extractor. The breech is now closed by pushing it smartly to the left, and is locked by turning the handle to the front. A primer may now be inserted in the vent, and the gun is ready for firing.
Total length 3.83 feet
Length of bore 3.43 feet
Travel of projectile 3.10 feet
Calibre 1.65 inches
Weight 121 pounds
Twist of rifling, uniform 1 in 29.83 cals.
Muzzle-velocity 1298 ft.-sec.
Maximum range 3500 yards
Positions for the use of the sword
The Situation of the Cavalry man on the near side
The Cavalry man making point to the right
The Bayonet Exercise
The genesis of the “large-wheeled tractor” was as follows: Trenches with a parados and parapet about 4 ft. high were being constructed by the enemy in Flanders.
The engineers consulted by the Land Ship Committee gave it as their considered opinion that if these obstacles were to be crossed, a wheel of not less than 15 ft. diameter would be necessary.
Machines with these gigantic wheels were actually ordered, but the wooden model that was knocked together as a preliminary at once convinced even its best friends that the design was fantastic, and that any machine of the kind would be little better than useless on account of its conspicuousness and vulnerability.
However, the “big wheel” idea did not utterly die, for in the upturned snout of the Mark I. Tank we have, as it were, its “toe” preserved, the track turning sharply back at about axle level, instead of mounting uselessly skyward, as would have been the case had not the old wheel idea been supplanted by that of the sliding track.
The Romans, either alarmed by the progress of Hannibal, or becoming aware of the value of such allies as the Spaniards, now sent larger armies to their assistance, headed by their ablest generals.
The constantly smouldering match of the former rendered it a very dangerous weapon in the neighbourhood of cannon; the "snaphaunce", or "fusil", was fitted with a "fire-lock", in which a spark was struck from a flint.
The "garot", or heavy dart, to be fired from this early gun was provided with a wooden plug made to fit the bore. The type of "garot" shown on the right was intended to be fired from a large cross-bow on a stand.
Submarine Mine laid by the Russians in the Crimean War
Made of staves about 3 in. thick, and containing an inner case filled with flue gunpowder.
A, Can buoy containing powder. B, Box containing lighted match and punk below. C, Lid or slide between match and punk. D, String for pulling out slide, to allow match to ignite punk.
Anelace (Also in French, alenas, alinlaz, analasse, anlace.) A broad knife or dagger worn at the girdle.
It was a well known weapon in he thirteenth century.
Doubtless on the coasts of Scandinavia and North Germany, the chief
home of these composite crossbows after the time of the Crusades, whalebone
was easily obtainable, whilst in other parts of the Continent, the pieces which
formed the heart of the bow, were made from the straightened horn of an
This ancient form of crossbow with a composite bow, survived in an
improved form in Scandinavia and in the north of Europe, as a weapon
of sport and war, till about 1460, or for nearly a hundred years after the
far superior crossbow with a thick steel bow and a windlass had been in use in
France, Spain and Italy. Some of these later weapons were made so strong
in the fifteenth century, that after the invention of the powerful cranequin
for bending steel bows, this apparatus was also employed for bending the
From MS. Gaston Phosbus. Fourteenth century407 visits
A troop of mounted crossbowmen, of special skill and courage, usually formed the bodyguard of the king, and attended him in battle. Mounted crossbowmen
were largely employed on the Continent in the fourteenth, and first half of the
fifteenth century, and these men were usually allowed one and sometimes even
two horses apiece, besides being supplied, when on the march, with carts to
carry their crossbows and quarrels
The kneeling figure is fitting his belt-claw to the string of his crossbow, preparatory to bending its bow.
From Manuscript No. 2813 in the National Library, Paris, reproduced by J. Quicherat in his ' History of Costume in France,' 1875.
Joannes Stradanus, born at Bruges 1536, died at Florence 1605, a Flemish historical painter who delighted in portraying all kinds of sport, such as shooting, hunting, fishing and coursing, which he did with wonderful skill and in most realistic fashion. This picture is reduced from ' Venationes Ferarum,' a work consisting of 105 large plates of sporting scenes, dated 1578. The hunters carry stonebows, and the rabbits are being driven from their burrows by smoke and fire. Purse nets and stop nets may also be seen in use.
The centre figure may be seen bending his crossbow with a windlass, with his foot in the stirrup of the weapon.
From Manuscript, Froissart's ' Chronicles.
I, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, military bolts ;
6, bolt with tow soaked in oil for firing ships and houses ;
7, bolt for a slur bow ;
8, bolt for killing deer ;
9, 10, bolts for killing large birds ;
11, 12, bolts for killing game birds. The latter had not metal heads, and were blunt, so as not to damage the game.
The crossbowman is aiming at a target to the left of the picture.
From a catalogue of the Arsenal of the Emperor Maximilian I. (6. 1459, d. 1519).
Crossbowman approaching game by means of a stalkig horse
How a crossbowman should approach animals by means of a cart concealed with foliage.
The narrow cruciform loophole, called by architects ' Arbalestina,' which is usually to be seen in the masonry of a mediaeval fortress, was designed for the special use of crossbowmen in repelling an assault.
To enable the crossbow, or longbow, to be aimed to the right or left through a loophole, the aperture was greatly widened out on the inside face of the perforated wall.
They represent French soldiers at the defence of Rouen, 1419, shooting from behind the shelter of shields propped up in front of them.
The centre figure is winding up his windlass crossbow behind the shelter of a shield.
From Manuscript, Froissarts ' Chronicles.'
The larger shields, which were carried before the knights (by their pages) when on the march, and which were propped up in front of them as a protection from arrows in a battle or a siege, were known as pavises or mantlets.
The soldiers carry windlass crossbows. One man is winding up his weapon ; the other is shooting, with his windlass laid on the ground at his feet.