Woman using leeches, 17th century. (From Guillaume van den Bossche, Historica Medica, Brussels, 1639.)
A man employing leeches to reduce his weight, 16th century. (From P. Boaistuau, Histoire Podigieuses, Paris, 1567. )
Advertisement for phlebotomy and cupping instruments. Note the rubber cups. (From George Tiemann & Co., American Armamentarium Chirurgicum, New York, 1889.)
An early illustration of the octagonal scarificator, 1801. This plate also includes one of the earliest illustrations of the syringe applied to cupping cups. (From Benjamin Bell, A System of Surgery, 7th edition, volume 3, Edinburgh, 1801.)
Cupping instruments illustrated by Dionis, 1708: a, cups made of horn; b, lamp for exhausting air; c, fleam for making scarifications; d, horns with holes at the tip for mouth suction; e, balls of wax to close the holes in the horn cups; f, g, glass cups; h, candle to light the tow or the small candles; i, tow; k, small candles on a card which is placed over the scarifications and lit in order to exhaust the cup; l, lancet for making scarifications; m, scarifications; n, plaster to place on the wound. (From Pierre Dionis, Cours d’opérations de chirurgie demontrées au Jardin Royal, Paris, 1708.)
Damoiseau’s terabdella. (From Damoiseau, La Terabdelle ou machine pneumatique, Paris, 1862.
Demours’ device for combining cup, scarifier and exhausting apparatus. (From Samuel Bayfield, A Treatise on Practical Cupping, London, 1823.)
Depurator patented by A. F. Jones, 1866.
(From patent specifications)
Dry cupping for sciatica. (From Frederik Dekkers, Exercitationes Practicae Circa Medendi Methodum, Leyden, 1694.
Instruments and technique of phlebotomy: Fig. 1 shows an arm about to be bled. A ligature has been applied to make the veins swell. The common veins bled—cephalic, basilic, and median—are illustrated. Fig. 2 shows several types of incisions. Fig. 3 is a fleam, Fig. 4 a spring lancet, and Fig. 5 a “French lancet.” (From Laurence Heister, A General System of Surgery, London, 1759.
Instruments for bleeding from the arm, 1708: a, a serviette to cover the patient’s clothing; b, a cloth ligature to place around the arm; c, a lancet case; d, a lancet; e and f, candles to give light for the operation; g, a baton or staff for the patient to hold; h, i, and k, basins for collecting blood; l and m, compresses; n, a bandage to be placed over the compress; p, eau de la Reine d’Hongrie that can be used instead of vinegar to revive the patient if he faints; q, a glass of urine and water for the patient to drink when he revives; r, s, t, implements for washing the hands and the lancets after the operation. (From Pierre Dionis, Cours d’opérations de chirurgie demontrées au Jardin Royal, Paris, 1708.
Junod’s boot applied to a baby in the cradle. (From Victor Theodore Junod, A Theoretical and Practical Treatise on Maemespasia. London, 1879.
Paré’s scarificator, 16th century. (From The Workes of that Famous Chirurgeon, Ambrose Parey, translated by Thomas Johnson, London, 1649.)
Patent for a complex cupping pump, J. A. Maxam, 1916. (From patent specifications, U.S. patent 1179129.)
R. J. Dodd’s patent cupping apparatus. Figs. 4 and 5 are the tubes for cupping the uterus. Fig. 3 is the flexible match scarifier. (From patent specifications, U.S. patent no. 3537.)
Scarification without cupping in Egypt in the 16th century. To obtain sufficient blood, 20 to 40 gashes were made in the legs and the patient was made to stand in a basin of warm water. (From Prosper Alpinus, Medicina Aegyptorum, Leyden, 1719.
W. D. Hooper’s patent cupping apparatus with tubular blades. (From patent specifications, U.S. patent no. 68985.)
Wet cupping for a headache. (From Frederik Dekkers, Exercitationes Practicae Circa Medendi Methodum, Leyden, 1694.)