Skeleton of the Indian elephant. Only four toes are visible, the fifth concealed owing to the view from the side.
The African elephant (Elephas Africanus) with rider mounted on its back. The drawing is an enlarged representation of an ancient Carthaginian coin.
Various representations of the gallop.
Fig. 1.—From Géricault's picture, "The Epsom Derby, 1821."
Figs. 2 and 3.—From gold-work on the handle of a Mycenæan dagger, 1800 b.c.
Fig. 4.—From iron-work found at Koban, east of the Black Sea, dating from 500 b.c.
Fig. 5.—From Muybridge's instantaneous photograph of a fox-terrier, showing the probable origin of the pose of the "flying gallop" transferred from the dog to other animals by the Mycenæans.
Fig. 6.—The stretched-leg prance from the Bayeux tapestry (eleventh century).
Fig. 7.—The stretched-leg prance used to represent the gallop by Carle Vernet in 1760.
Fig. 8.—The stretched-leg prance used by early Egyptian artists.
A reconstruction of the extinct American mastodon (Mastodon ohioticus) from a drawing by Prof. Osborne. Other extinct species of mastodon are found in Europe.
The Indian elephant (Elephas maximus or indicus). Observe the small size of its ear-flap.
Head of the ancestral elephant—Palæomastodon—as it appeared in life. It shows, as compared with the earlier ancestor, an elongation both of the snout and the lower jaws. The tusk in the upper jaw has increased in size, but is still small as compared with that of later elephants. (After a drawing by Prof. Osborne.)
Head of the early ancestor of elephants—Meritherium—as it appeared in life. Observe the absence of a trunk and the enlarged front tooth in the upper jaw, which is converted in later members of the elephant-stock or line of descent into the great tusk. (After a drawing by Prof. Osborne.)
The crowns of three "grinders" or molars of elephants compared. a is that of an extinct mastodon with four transverse ridges; b is that of the African elephant with nine ridges in use and ground flat; c is that of the mammoth with sixteen narrow ridges in use—the rest, some eight in number, are at the left hand of the figure and not yet in use.
Drawing of the skull of the rat-toothed goat, Myotragus—the new extinct beast discovered in limestone fissures in the island of Majorca by Miss Bate. 1. Side view of the skull and lower jaw. 2. Appearance of the two rat-like teeth as seen when the end of the lower jaw is viewed from above.
Restored model of the skull and lower jaw of the ancestral elephant Palæomastodon from the upper Eocene strata of the Fayoum Desert, Egypt. It shows the six molar teeth of the upper and lower jaw (left side), the tusk-like upper incisors and the large chisel-like lower incisors in front.
Representation of a man extracting the jewel from a toad's head; two "jewels", already extracted are seen dropping to the ground. From the "Hortus Sanitatis," published in 1490.
Representations of the gallop.
Fig. 2.—One of the many admirable Chinese representations of the galloping horse. This is very early, namely, 100 a.d.
Fig. 3.—From a Japanese drawing of the seventeenth century; the pose is a modification of the "flying gallop,"
Fig. 4.—The flex-legged prance from a bas-relief in the frieze of the Parthenon, b.c. 300.
Fig. 5.—A modern French drawing. It is the most "effective" pose yet adopted by artists, and is an improvement on the full-stretched flying gallop, though failing to suggest the greatest effort and rapidity.
Fig. 6.—Instantaneous photographs of four phases of a horse "jumping."
Cat on a wall
Cat with kittens
Cat and birds
Cat asleep on a chair
Cat on a fence
Blacksmith shoeing horse
Boy feeding donkey
Brown horse and foal
Child looking after horse
Horse and cart with dog driver
Horse and dogs ready for a ride
Horse and Foal
Horse and sheep show
Horse in stall
Horse in stall
Horse staying by his owner
Horse with feedbag
Horses in stall
Horses running in snow
Hunting with the dogs
Man with two horses
Horse reaching for some leaves on rather barren tree