The Hebrew word is Dôb, and it is a remarkable fact that the name of this animal in the Arabic language is almost identical with the Hebrew term, namely, Dubh. The peculiar species of Bear which inhabits Palestine is the Syrian Bear (Ursus Isabellinu s), and, though it has been variously described by different eye-witnesses, there is no doubt that the same species was seen by them all.
(At three corresponding stages of development).
B = Bat (Rhinolophus) G = Gibbon (Hylobates) M = Man (Homo)
These skeletons of the five living genera of anthropomorpha are reduced to a common size, in order to show better the relative proportions of the various parts. The human skeleton is 1/20 th natural size, the gorilla 1/18 th, the chimpanzee 1/7 th, the orang 1/7 th, the gibbon 1/9 th. Young specimens of the chimpanzee and orang have been selected, because they approach nearer to man than the adult. No one of the living anthropoid apes is nearest to man in all respects; this cannot be said of either of the African (gorilla and chimpanzee) or the Asiatic (orang and gibbon). This anatomic fact is explained phylogenetically on the ground that none of them are direct ancestors of man; they represent divergent branches of the stem, of which man is the crown. However, the small gibbon is nearest related to the hypothetical common ancestor of all the anthropomorpha to which we give the name of Prothylobates.
"Thou shalt make a covering above of badgers' skins."
The next importation of practical importance, although it was claimed that nine head were received about 1861, by one Stiles, was made by Israel S. Diehl, a former U.S. consul and C. S. Brown, of Newark, New Jersey, about 1868. Mr. Diehl was commissioned by the United States government to investigate the industry in Turkey, and he secured a lot of Angoras, variously estimated at from one hundred to one hundred and sixty head. Mr. C. P. Bailey furnished the money for the transportation of these goats to California. He says, "Some were fairly good and some were only ordinary. They were of medium size, and with the exception of the neck, tolerably well covered with fleece, which however had a scattering of kemp throughout. They were conceded to be the best brought to California up to that time." Some of these bucks had been tampered with and were sterile.
1. Rhinoceros. 10. Fallow deer.
2. Seal. 11. Chamois.
3. Cat. 12. Antelope.
4. Sable. 13. Goat.
5. Bear. 14. Sheep.
6. Badger. 15. Bison.
7. Camel. 16. Hog.
8. Elk. 17. Outline of the head of the Great Whale.
9. Stag, or red deer.
The engraving represents not an actual dissection, but the plan of the fibres as understood by the anatomist. The intricacy of the cerebral structure is so great that it would require a vast number of skilful dissections and engravings to make a correct portrait. Fortunately, this is not necessary for the general reader, who requires only to understand the position of the organs in the head, and the direction of their growth, which is in all cases directly outward from the central region or ventricles, so as to cause a prominence of the cranium—not a “bump,” but a general fulness of contour. Bumps belong to the growth of bone—not that of the brain.
If the reader has not fully mastered the intricacy of the brain structure, he will find his difficulties removed by studying two more skilful dissections. The following engraving presents the appearances when we cut through the middle of the brain horizontally and reveal the bottom of the ventricles, in which we see the great ganglion, or optic thalamus and corpus striatum, and the three localities at which the hemispheres are connected by fibres on the median line, called anterior, middle, and posterior commissures. These commissures are of no importance in our study; they assist the corpus callosum in maintaining a close connection between the right and left hemispheres.
The Ass is mentioned upwards of fifty times in the Bible, and from its having been selected as the animal on which it pleased our Saviour to enter Jerusalem, it carries with it in some respects a higher degree of interest than any other. References to the ass may be grouped under five heads, according to the Hebrew names for the different sorts in the original. These are (1) CHAMOR, which is the ordinary name for the domestic ass, whether male or female, but more properly the male ; (2) ATON, also a domestic ass, but rendered always a she-ass ; (3) AYIR, a colt or young ass ; (4) PERE, wild ass, and (5) AROD, another term for wild ass.
In Eastern countries, as Egypt and Syria, the ass is a far more valuable animal, well cared for and fed, and considerably larger in size than in this country. It is capable of a good day's journey at a moderate pace either an easy canter or a less agreeable trot—with a man on its back, and it has a spirited demeanour and wide-awake manner which render it a pleasant quadruped to deal with. The breed is carefully selected, and a well-bred Syrian ass will fetch forty pounds. Their average height is perhaps two to three hands above that in this country. The Palestine asses are the finest in the world. Their colour and markings are much the same everywhere, and no animal has changed so slightly under domestication as the ass.
Bear with cubs
Haymouse (singing vole)
Bear with two cubs
Some of these, such as the Saiga-Antelope (Saiga tartarica), still inhabit portions of Eastern Europe, whilst others have retreated to their native land. But it might be asked, how is it known that these species did not originate in Europe, and thence migrate to Siberia? Because if they had originated on our continent, they would have spread there. They would have invaded Northern and Southern Europe, and they would probably have left some remains in Spain, Italy, or Greece.
Long-nosed sheep looking through the hedge
A favourite house-dog, left to the care of its master’s servants, while he was himself away, would have been starved by them if it had not had recourse to the kitchen of a friend of its master’s, which in better days it had occasionally visited. On the return of the master it enjoyed plenty at home, and stood in no further need of the liberality it experienced; but still it did not forget that hospitable kitchen where it had found a resource in adversity. A few days after, the dog fell in with a duck, which, as he found in no private pond, he probably concluded to be no private property. He snatched up the duck in his teeth, carried it to the kitchen where he had been so hospitably fed, laid it at the cook’s feet, with many polite movements of the tail, and then scampered off with much seeming complacency at having given this testimony of his grateful sense of favours.
A gentleman in the county of Stirling kept a greyhound and a pointer, and being fond of coursing, the pointer was accustomed to find the hares, and the greyhound to catch them. When the season was over, it was found that the dogs were in the habit of going out by themselves, and killing hares for their own amusement. To prevent this, a large iron ring was fastened to the pointer’s neck by a leather collar, and hung down so as to prevent the dog from running, or jumping over dykes, &c. The animals, however, continued to stroll out to the fields together; and one day the gentleman, suspecting that all was not right, resolved to watch them, and to his surprise, found that the moment when they thought that they were unobserved, the greyhound took up the iron ring in his mouth, and carrying it, they set off to the hills, and began to search for hares as usual. They were followed, and it was observed, that whenever the pointer scented the hare, the ring was dropped, and the greyhound stood ready to pounce upon poor puss the moment the other drove her from her form, but that he uniformly returned to assist his companion after he had caught his prey.
A female elephant belonging to a gentleman at Calcutta broke loose from her keeper, and was lost in the woods. The excuses which the keeper made were not admitted. It was supposed that he had sold the elephant; his wife and family therefore were sold for slaves, and he was himself condemned to work upon the roads. About twelve years after, this man was ordered into the country to assist in catching wild elephants. The keeper fancied he saw his long-lost elephant in a group that was before them. He was determined to go up to it; nor could the strongest representations of the danger dissuade him from his purpose. When he approached the creature, she knew him, and giving him three salutes, by waving her trunk in the air, knelt down and received him on her back. She afterwards assisted in securing the other elephants, and likewise brought her three young ones. The keeper recovered his character; and, as a recompense for his sufferings and intrepidity, had an annuity settled on him for life. This elephant was afterwards in the possession of Governor Hastings.
An elephant, from some motive of revenge, killed his cornack, or conductor. The man’s wife, who beheld the dreadful scene, took her two children, and threw them at the feet of the enraged animal, saying, “Since you have slain my husband, take my life also, as well as that of my children.” The elephant instantly stopped, relented, and as if stung with remorse, took up the eldest boy with his trunk, placed him on its neck, adopted him for his cornack, and would never afterwards allow any other person to mount it.