The British museum contains a mosaic figure of a Roman girl playing the tibia, which is stated to have been disinterred in the year 1823 on the Via Appia. Here the holmos or mouth-piece, somewhat resembling the reed of our oboe, is distinctly shown. The finger-holes, probably four, are not indicated, although they undoubtedly existed on the instrument.
The tuba was a straight trumpet. Both the cornu and the tuba were employed in war to convey signals. The same was the case with the buccina,—originally perhaps a conch shell, and afterwards a simple horn of an animal,—and the lituus, which was bent at the broad end but otherwise straight.
To the Etruscans is also attributed by some the invention of the hydraulic organ. The Greeks possessed a somewhat similar contrivance which they called hydraulos, i.e. water-flute, and which probably was identical with the organum hydraulicum of the Romans. The instrument ought more properly to be regarded as a pneumatic organ, for the sound was produced by the current of air through the pipes; the water applied serving merely to give the necessary pressure to the bellows and to regulate their action. The pipes were probably caused to sound by means of stops, perhaps resembling those on our organ, which were drawn out or pushed in. The construction was evidently but a primitive contrivance, contained in a case which could be carried by one or two persons and which was placed on a table. The highest degree of perfection which the hydraulic organ obtained with the ancients is perhaps shown in a representation on a coin of the emperor Nero, in the British museum. Only ten pipes are given to it and there is no indication of any key board, which would probably have been shown had it existed. The man standing at the side and holding a laurel leaf in his hand is surmised to represent a victor in the exhibitions of the circus or the amphitheatre. The hydraulic organ probably was played on such occasions; and the medal containing an impression of it may have been bestowed upon the victor.
North end of the Forum, with the Temple of Jupiter
An altar stands before the statue of Venus. In pre-Roman times this may have been the only shrine in the city at which worship was offered to Herentas; for by that name the goddess of love was known in the native speech. Venus as goddess of the Roman colony, was represented in an altogether different guise, and had a special place of worship elsewhere
A. Portico at the Entrance of the Forum Triangulare.
B. Forum Triangulare.
1, 1. Colonnade.
3. Doric temple.
4. Semicircular bench, with sundial.
5. Sepulchral enclosure.
7. Well house.
8. Pedestal of the statue of Marcellus.
C. Open-air Gymnasium—Palaestra.
2. Pedestal with steps behind it.
3, 3. Dressing rooms.
D. Tank for Saffron Water.
E. Large Theatre.
1. Dressing room.
4. Ima cavea.
5. Media cavea.
6. Summa cavea, over a corridor.
7, 7. Tribunals.
F. Small Theatre.
1. Dressing room.
3, 3. Tribunalia.
G. Theatre Colonnade, used as Barracks for Gladiators.
1. Passage leading from Stabian Street.
3. Doorkeeper's room.
4. Passage to the Large Theatre, walled up.
5. Stairway leading down from the Forum Triangulare.
6. Athletes' waiting room—Exedra.
7. Room with remains of weapons and cloth.
8. Guard room.
9. Stairs leading to overseer's rooms.
11. Mess room.
H. Temple of Zeus Milichius.
4. Sacristan's room.
I. Temple of Isis.
3. Shrine of Harpocrates.
5. Hall of initiation.
6. Hall of the Mysteries.
7. Priest's residence.
K. City Wall.
L. Foundations of Steps.
1, 5. Cistern curbs.
2. Wash basin of masonry.
3. Lead reservoir from which water was conducted to the reservoir in the kitchen supplying the bath.
4. Steps leading to the reservoir.
2. Reservoir containing water for the bath.
3. Stairway to rooms over the bath.
4. Entrance to cellar under the inner end of the first wine press, in which were the fastenings of the standard of the press beam.
C. Furnace room.
J. Tool Room.
K, L. Sleeping Rooms.
N. Dining Room.
P. Room with Two Wine Presses.
1, 1. Foundations of the presses.
2, 2, 2. Receptacles for the grape juice, dolia.
3. Cistern for the product of the second pressing, lacus.
4. Holes for the standards of the press beams.
5, 5. Holes for the posts at the ends of the two windlasses used in raising and lowering the press beams.
6. Pit affording access to the framework by which the windlass posts were tied down.
1. Round vats, dolia.
R. Court for the Fermentation of Wine.
1. Channel for the fresh grape juice coming from P.
2. Fermentation vats, dolia.
3. Lead kettle over a fireplace.
4. Cistern curb.
S. Barn, nubilarium (?).
T. Threshing Floor, area.
U. Open Cistern for the Water falling on the Threshing Floor.
V-V. Sleeping Rooms.
W. Entrance to Cellar under the Inner End of the Second Wine Press; see B. 4.
X. Room with Hand Mill.
Y. Room with Oil Press.
1. Foundation of the press.
2. Hole for the standard of the press beam.
3. Entrance to cellar with appliances for securing the press beam.
4. Holes for the windlass posts.
5. Hole affording access to the fastenings of the windlass posts.
6. Receptacle for the oil, gemellar.
Z. Room containing the Olive Crusher.
A. The Forum.
1. Pedestal of the statue of Augustus.
2. Pedestal of the statue of Claudius.
3. Pedestal of the statue of Agrippina.
4. Pedestal of the statue of Nero.
5. Pedestal of the statue of Caligula.
6. Pedestals of equestrian statues.
7. Pedestals of standing figures.
8. Pedestal for three equestrian statues.
9. Speaker's platform
10. Table of standard measures
11. Room of the supervisor of measures.
B. The Basilica.
a. Entrance court.
2. Main room.
4-4. Rooms at the ends of the tribunal.
C. The Temple of Apollo.
6. Sacristan's room.
7-7. Rooms made from earlier colonnade.
D. D'. Market Buildings.
F. F. City Treasury.
G. Commemorative Arch.
H. Temple of Jupiter.
I. Arch of Tiberius.
K. The Provision Market—Macellum.
3-3. Market stalls.
4. Market for meat and fish.
5. Chapel of the imperial family.
6. Banquet room.
7. Round structure with water basin—Tholus.
L. Sanctuary of the City Lares.
1. Main room, unroofed, with an altar in the centre.
2. Apse, with shrine.
3. Recesses with pedestals.
4. Niche opening on the Forum.
M. Temple of Vespasian.
N. The Building of Eumachia.
O. The Voting Place—Comitium.
1. Recess opening on the main room.
2. Recess opening on the Forum.
P-R. Municipal Buildings.
P. Office of the duumvirs.
Q. Hall of the city council.
R. Office of the aediles.
The Street of Tombs
24. Villa of Diomedes.
16-23. Tombs—Group III.
16. Unfinished tomb.
17. Tomb of Umbricius Scaurus.
18. Round tomb.
19. Sepulchral enclosure.
20. Tomb of Calventius Quietus.
21. Sepulchral enclosure of Istacidius Helenus.
22. Tomb of Naevoleia Tyche.
23. Triclinium Funebre.
5-15. So-called Villa of Cicero.
1-4 a. Tombs—Group I.
1. Sepulchral niche of Cerrinius Restitutus.
2. Sepulchral bench of A. Veius.
3. Tomb of M. Porcius.
4. Sepulchral bench of Mamia.
4 a. Tomb of the Istacidii.
A. Herculaneum Gate.
C. Bay Road.
KEY TO THE RIGHT SIDE
33-43. Tombs—Group IV.
33. Unfinished tomb.
34. Tomb with the marble door.
35. Unfinished tomb.
36. Sepulchral enclosure with small pyramids.
37. Tomb of Luccius Libella.
38. Tomb of Ceius Labeo.
39. Tomb without a name.
40. Sepulchral niche of Salvius.
41. Sepulchral niche of Velasius Gratus.
42. Tomb of M. Arrius Diomedes.
43. Tomb of Arria.
31-32. Samnite Graves.
10, 11, 13, 14. Shops.
12. Garden belonging to Tombs 8 and 9.
15. Street entrance of Inn.
16-28. Rooms belonging to the Inn.
29-30. Potter's establishment.
1-9. Tombs—Group II.
1. Tomb without a name.
2. Sepulchral enclosure of Terentius Felix.
3, 4. Tombs without names.
5. Sepulchral enclosure.
6. Garland tomb.
7. Sepulchral enclosure.
8. Tomb of the Blue Glass Vase.
9. Sepulchral niche.
A. Herculaneum Gate.
B. City Wall.
D. Road along City Wall.
E-E. Vesuvius Road.
The Regions are given as they were laid out by Fiorelli, the boundaries being marked by broken lines. The Insulae are designated by Arabic numerals.
Stabian Street, between Stabian and Vesuvius gates, separating Regions VIII, VII, and VI, from I, IX, and V, is often called Cardo, from analogy with the cardo maximus (the north and south line) of a Roman camp. Nola Street, leading from the Nola Gate, with its continuations (Strada della Fortuna, south of Insulae 10, 12, 13, and 14 of Region VI, and Strada della Terme, south of VI, 4, 6, 8), was for similar reasons designated as the Greater Decuman, Decumanus Maior; while the street running from the Water Gate to the Sarno Gate (Via Marina, Abbondanza Street, Strada dei Diadumeni) is called the Lesser Decuman, Decumanus Minor.
The only Regions wholly excavated are VII and VIII; but only a small portion of Region VI remains covered.
The towers of the city wall are designated by numbers, as they are supposed to have been at the time of the siege of Sulla, in 89 B.C.
(From the Bust in the British Museum.)
Bacchus was the Roman god of agriculture, wine and fertility, equivalent to the Greek god Dionysus.
From Hope's "Costume of the Ancients."
The material of the toga was wool, in the earlier time and for the common people; afterwards silk and other materials were used, coloured or bordered according to the `rank` or station of the wearer.