Negro Trumpet. Ivory. From the regions of the White Nile
The large ivory trumpet is used by the Niam-Niams, and other negro tribes, for transmitting signals in times of war.
Wood, inlaid with ivory and tortoise-shell, engraved. Two sets of tuning pegs, the lower containing fourteen, and the higher, ten.
On the middle of the neck is an ovl plate of mother-of-pearl, bering the German inscription, Gott der Herr ist Sonne und Schield ("God, the Lord, is sun and shield.") About 1700
Bamboo, with 13 strings of silk neatly twisted. The body ornamented with embroidered work, and painted with inscriptions, flowers and foliage ; in the center is carved an open fan.
Viola di Bardone
The finger-board is carved in open fret-work terminating in three lions' heads; above the bridge are two figures of negrose, carved and gilt. German 1686
The instruments has mtal strings, one for each tone, whiched are twanged by means of small portions of quill, attached to slips of wood called "jacks" and provided with thin metal springs. German. About 1600
A kind of lute. The body is of wood, lacquered black, and ornamented with a band of Japanese design in gold lacquer. Four strings and two very small soundholes.
Containing 17 pipes of small bamboo reeds, arranged in five sets, each having pipes of equal length.
A therbo. Wood, inlaid with ebony, ivory, and coloured woods. Two sets of wooden tuning-pegs, the lower containing twelve, and the higher eight. The instrument had wire strings.
Case of deal, black japanned; with internal ornaments of flowers painted, and inscriptions in gold.
Made by Andrea Ruckers, of Antwerp, 1651
A kind of Lute, Wood, painted. Ten strings, of which nine are ctgut, and one of silk covered with thin wire.
A species of kobsa with eight strings is an old popular instrument of the Russians.
The body consists of a wooden frame, over which a parchment is stretched. One string of white horse-hair.
The case is in the shape of a fork, and is intended to rest on the ground.
A kind of dulcimer. Wood inlaid with mother-of-pearl. It contains twenty-five sets of wire strings, each set consisting of four strings which are tuned in unison.
Side striped jackel
Wolves hunting a deer
Woman using leeches, 17th century. (From Guillaume van den Bossche, Historica Medica, Brussels, 1639.)
A man employing leeches to reduce his weight, 16th century. (From P. Boaistuau, Histoire Podigieuses, Paris, 1567. )
Advertisement for phlebotomy and cupping instruments. Note the rubber cups. (From George Tiemann & Co., American Armamentarium Chirurgicum, New York, 1889.)
An early illustration of the octagonal scarificator, 1801. This plate also includes one of the earliest illustrations of the syringe applied to cupping cups. (From Benjamin Bell, A System of Surgery, 7th edition, volume 3, Edinburgh, 1801.)
Cupping instruments illustrated by Dionis, 1708: a, cups made of horn; b, lamp for exhausting air; c, fleam for making scarifications; d, horns with holes at the tip for mouth suction; e, balls of wax to close the holes in the horn cups; f, g, glass cups; h, candle to light the tow or the small candles; i, tow; k, small candles on a card which is placed over the scarifications and lit in order to exhaust the cup; l, lancet for making scarifications; m, scarifications; n, plaster to place on the wound. (From Pierre Dionis, Cours d’opérations de chirurgie demontrées au Jardin Royal, Paris, 1708.)
Damoiseau’s terabdella. (From Damoiseau, La Terabdelle ou machine pneumatique, Paris, 1862.
Demours’ device for combining cup, scarifier and exhausting apparatus. (From Samuel Bayfield, A Treatise on Practical Cupping, London, 1823.)
Depurator patented by A. F. Jones, 1866.
(From patent specifications)
Dry cupping for sciatica. (From Frederik Dekkers, Exercitationes Practicae Circa Medendi Methodum, Leyden, 1694.
Instruments and technique of phlebotomy: Fig. 1 shows an arm about to be bled. A ligature has been applied to make the veins swell. The common veins bled—cephalic, basilic, and median—are illustrated. Fig. 2 shows several types of incisions. Fig. 3 is a fleam, Fig. 4 a spring lancet, and Fig. 5 a “French lancet.” (From Laurence Heister, A General System of Surgery, London, 1759.
Instruments for bleeding from the arm, 1708: a, a serviette to cover the patient’s clothing; b, a cloth ligature to place around the arm; c, a lancet case; d, a lancet; e and f, candles to give light for the operation; g, a baton or staff for the patient to hold; h, i, and k, basins for collecting blood; l and m, compresses; n, a bandage to be placed over the compress; p, eau de la Reine d’Hongrie that can be used instead of vinegar to revive the patient if he faints; q, a glass of urine and water for the patient to drink when he revives; r, s, t, implements for washing the hands and the lancets after the operation. (From Pierre Dionis, Cours d’opérations de chirurgie demontrées au Jardin Royal, Paris, 1708.
Junod’s boot applied to a baby in the cradle. (From Victor Theodore Junod, A Theoretical and Practical Treatise on Maemespasia. London, 1879.
Paré’s scarificator, 16th century. (From The Workes of that Famous Chirurgeon, Ambrose Parey, translated by Thomas Johnson, London, 1649.)
Patent for a complex cupping pump, J. A. Maxam, 1916. (From patent specifications, U.S. patent 1179129.)
R. J. Dodd’s patent cupping apparatus. Figs. 4 and 5 are the tubes for cupping the uterus. Fig. 3 is the flexible match scarifier. (From patent specifications, U.S. patent no. 3537.)
Scarification without cupping in Egypt in the 16th century. To obtain sufficient blood, 20 to 40 gashes were made in the legs and the patient was made to stand in a basin of warm water. (From Prosper Alpinus, Medicina Aegyptorum, Leyden, 1719.
W. D. Hooper’s patent cupping apparatus with tubular blades. (From patent specifications, U.S. patent no. 68985.)
Wet cupping for a headache. (From Frederik Dekkers, Exercitationes Practicae Circa Medendi Methodum, Leyden, 1694.)
The German-developed V-1 was an automatically controlled pilotless aircraft for use against Allied cities during World War II.
The missile was launched from ground ramps. Once in the air, automatic controls on board the craft took over. The V-1 climbed to a predetermined altitude, followed a compass course, and dove to the ground after a preset distance had been covered.
This mid-wing monoplane was powered by a unique pulsejet engine above the rear portion of the fuselage.
The relatively low speed of the missile made it easy prey for antiaircraft guns or fighters.
Launched into earth orbit on May 14, 1973, Skylab was a research center that housed three-man crews on three different visits to the space station. The longest mission lasted nearly three months.
M131 chair control
Sleep compartment 70 sq ft
Head 30 sq ft
Wardroom 97 sq ft
M507 gravity substitute work bench
Experiment compartment 181 sq ft
M171 gas analyzer
M171 helmet stowage
Electric power control console
M131 rotating chair
The Apollo Lunar Hand Tool Carrier holds 32 kilograms (70 pounds) of equipment, including a trenching tool, two geology scoops, four rock bags, a portable magnetometer, and five cameras.
Two early types of liquid-fuel, rocket motors. Left, the original ARS motor; right, a four-nozzle motor for ARS No. 4 rocket.
Thrust stud for fastening to rocket
Thrust and fuel column attached to rocket
The Lunar Orbiter project was initiated in 1963 as part of the U.S. Apollo program to land men on the Moon during the decade of the nineteen sixties.
Lunar Orbiter’s primary mission was to take and transmit both wide-angle and closeup images of the Moon. Lunar Orbiters photographed many areas of scientific interest and provided general photographic coverage of much of the moon’s surface. These pictures were then used to select the best landing sites for the first manned lunar landings. Orbiters also showed that the moon’s gravitational field permitted stable orbits.
Lunar Orbiter 1 was launched atop an Atlas-Agena D rocket on August 10, 1966. The last in the project, Lunar Orbiter 5, was launched on August 1, 1967. All five missions were successful.
The first three missions were similar. After each launch, the Agena stage’s booster engine was fired to send the spacecraft on a 90-hour coasting trajectory to the Moon, about 386,160 kilometers (240,000 miles) distant.
As the spacecraft neared the Moon, its on-board engine was fired as a retrorocket to slow the Orbiter and permit it to go into orbit around the Moon.