Thrust the rifle quickly forward to the full length of the left arm, turning the barrel to the left, and direct the point of the bayonet at the point to be attacked, butt covering the right fore-arm. At the same time straighten the right leg vigorously and throw the weight of the body forward and on the left leg, the ball of the right foot always on the ground. Guard is resumed immediately without command.
Straighten right arm and right leg vigorously and swing butt of rifle against point of attack, pivoting the rifle in the left hand at about the height of the left shoulder, allowing the bayonet to pass to the rear on the left side of the head
Portrait of Charlemagne, whom the Song of Roland names the King with the Grizzly Beard.--Fac-simile of an Engraving of the End of the Sixteenth Century.
Charlemagne was the first who recognised that social union, so admirable an example of which was furnished by Roman organization, and who was able, with the very elements of confusion and disorder to which he succeeded, to unite, direct, and consolidate diverging and opposite forces, to establish and regulate public administrations, to found and build towns, and to form and reconstruct almost a new world. We hear of him assigning to each his place, creating for all a common interest, making of a crowd of small and scattered peoples a great and powerful nation; in a word, rekindling the beacon of ancient civilisation. When he died, after a most active and glorious reign of forty-five years, he left an immense empire in the most perfect state of peace
The Lords and Barons prove their Nobility by hanging their Banners and exposing their Coats-of-arms at the Windows of the Lodge of the Heralds
After a Miniature of the "Tournaments of King Réné" (Fifteenth Century), MSS. of the National Library of Paris.
The drawing is a prospect taken from the king’s barrow, west from Vespasian’s camp, in the way from Ambresbury to Stonehenge, by the Bristol road.
Tho’ the graver has not done it justice: yet it will give one a general notion of the situation of the place.
It is admirably chosen, being in the midst of those wide downs, call’d Salisbury plain; between the river Avon to the east, and a brook that runs into the Willy, on the west.
Prospect of the Roman Road & Wansdike just above Calston May 20, 1724
This demonstrates that Wansdike was made before the Roman Road.
The Crocodile Keeper, whose image often appears in Ancient Egyptian memorials, as it represents the sound in the hieroglyphic alphabet, is manifold throughout the Nile region. From Cairo upstream, he is not missing in any place suitable for him on the River Nile. Preferably, he selects a sandbank as his base for the purpose of staying there until the washing of the current drives him away.
The Lapwing is recognizable by the weakly flask-shaped swollen bill, on the four-toed feet, on the blunt wings, whose point is formed by the third pin and by the crest that adorns the head. The upper head, the front neck, the upper breast and the rear half of the tail are glossy dark black, the feathers of the mantle dark green with blue or purple highlights, the sides of the neck, the under breast, the belly and the root half of the tail feathers white, some upper and all lower cover feathers of the tail dark rusty yellow; the crest consists of long, narrow feathers, which form a double point. The eye is brown, the beak black, the foot dirty dark red. Total length 34, tail length 10 cm.
[Translaed from the Dutch by online translator]
The Avocet is drawn in a simple but very graceful way. The upper head, the neck and the back neck, the shoulders and most of the wings are black, two large patches on the wings, and all the rest of the plumage are white. The eye is reddish brown, the beak black, the foot dark blue-gray. Total length 43, tail length 7 cm.
Numenius are slender-built Birds with very long, weakly curved downward, high at the root, gradually thinning beak forward; with the exception of the horn-like spire, it is covered with a soft skin; the upper jaw is slightly longer than the lower jaw and slightly curved over it. The legs are slender and high, without feathering well above the hock; all three prongs are joined together by clear webbing. In the large, pointed wings the first flight is the longest; the medium-long tail composed of twelve feathers is rounded at the tip. The hard, close-fitting plumage is reminiscent of that of the Lark by its color, and is similar in males and females to each other and in the different seasons.
[Translated from the Dutch by online translator ]
The Ruff ( Machetes or Pavoncella pugnax ) may be regarded as a long-legged Strandlooper, the only representative of his family.
The beak is as long as the head (but shorter than the barrel), straight, at the tip slightly lowered and not broadened, soft all along its length, the foot is high and slender, the lower leg naked well above the hocks; of the three fronts, the middle one is connected to the outer by a tension fleece; the short, high back toe does not touch the ground; the wings are of medium length and pointed; the tail is short, composed of 12 feathers, slightly rounded at the tip.
The men’s stockings are made of stuff, stitched and lined with cotton, with a line of gold thread sewed along the top. These stockings are somewhat mishapen, but are very warm.—There is an engaging modesty in the Chinese habit which adorns every class in life. The dress of the women is fastened close round the throat, their sleeves conceal their hands, and they wear long drawers reaching to their ankles. Those who can afford it, purchase ear-rings of gold, and large armlets of the same metal.—The hair of the Chinese is univerfally black. The women comb it up very nicely, and braid or coil it on the head with much neatness : sometimes it is fastened with a gold bodkin or two, and generally ornamented with natural or
artificial flowers, disposed according to the fancy of the wearer. The young and unmarried are required by custom to wear their hair combed over their foreheads, whilst the eyebrows of both are trimmed into a mere pencil line.
None but the lowest orders of Chinese women are indulged with the natural use of their feet. The parents or nurses of a female infant of superior condition do not neglect to roll the toes under the feet,
the great one excepted; and by being confined thus, they are rendered incapable of ever recovering their natural shape and position. The motive for this singular distortion is not acknowledged by any of the natives, neither is it easy to be surmised. If the custom proceeded from a notion of rendering the women more usefully domestic, the purpose is in a great measure defeated, since they are by this practice deprived of that active power which is necessary for the performance os domestic duties. If it be from a distrust of their fidelity, it is remarkable that no such custom prevails amongst the Turks, or other Asiatics, who are equally jealous of their women. It seems probable that, either from habit or prejudice, they attach ideas of vulgarity and disgust to this part os the human frame. The Chinese ladies are ridiculed by the European nations on account of this deformity, which is the result os fashion only, whilst they do not consider that, unsightly as it may be, it is perfectly consistent with those peculiar principles of modesty and decorum which the Chinese profess.
At the approach of night the gates of the cities in China, and the barricades at the end of each street, are carefully shut. During the night no persons of credit are seen in the streets, which abound with watchmen, who strike upon a piece of bamboo in their left hand, to denote the time and to mark their own vigilance. Those whom they meet in their walk are questioned, and if the reply be satisfactory, they are permitted to pass through a wicket in the barricade. The watchmen carry lanterns, upon which are written their names and the district: to which they belong. In the very hot months, all the lower classes of Chinese have their feet and legs bare.
The dress of a Chinese is suited to the gravity of his demeanour.
It consists, in general, of a long veil: extending to the ankle: the sleeves are wide at the shoulder, are gradually narrower at the wrist, and are rounded off in the form of a horse-shoe, covering the whole hand when it is not lifted up. No man of `rank` is allowed to appear in public without boots which have no heels, and are made of satin, silk, or calico. In full dress, he wears a long silk gown, generally of a blue colour and heavily embroidered; over this is placed a surcoat of silk, which reaches to the hand, and descends below the knee. From his neck is suspended a string of costly coral beads. His cap is edged with satin, velvet, or fur, and on the crown is a red ball with a peacock’s feather hanging from it. These are badges of distinction conferred by the emperor. The embroidered bird upon the breast is worn only by mandarins high in civil `rank`, while the military mandarins are distinguished by an embroidered dragon. All colours are not suffered to be worn indiscriminately. The emperor, and the princes of the blood only, are allowed to wear yellow; although violet colour is sometimes chosen by mandarins of `rank` on days of ceremony.
Australian Natives Burning their Dead
Among some of our western tribes of Indians the bodies of the dead are placed on scaffoldings of poles several feet high, and there left to the action of the elements. This practice had its origin in the absence of all tools suitable for digging in the earth, and possibly from a vague theory that the body of the deceased should be raised towards the home of the Great Spirit beyond the skies.
Pompeii was preserved, and not destroyed. To its inhabitant, on the day of the eruption it was destroyed; but for us who now look upon it, and study its history, it has been preserved.
There was one oven which remained uninjured. It had two openings; the loaves went into one of these, in the shape of dough, and were taken out at the other opening baked. Everything seemed to be in a fine state of preservation, and the oven could be made use of again for a repetition of its work of eighteen centuries ago.
The oven when found was full of bread. Some of the loaves were stamped to indicate that they were of wheat flour, and others to indicate that they were of bran flour. The oven had been carefully sealed, and there were no ashes in it. Eighty-one loaves were found in it, a little stale, to be sure, and very hard and black, but lying in the same order in which they were placed on the 23d of November in the year 79.
Rich mines of silver existed in the new world, particularly in Mexico and Peru. The conquest of Mexico by Cortes in 1519 was speedily followed by the development of the rich silver mines of that country. From a very early period the Aztecs had been familiar with silver, and wrought it into many ornamental and useful articles. The mines were opened and extensively worked by the Peruvians in Guanajuato, Zacatecas, and other districts, and their production was greatly increased by the abundance of quicksilver, and its employment in the reduction of ores. Quicksilver is used for this purpose to a greater extent in Mexico and Peru than in other countries.
In some English and Scotch mines, and also in some of the French mines, where the seams of coal are thin, boys, who are called “putters,” are employed to draw small carts along a railway. They fasten themselves to the cart with belts around their waists, and draw it along, going sometimes on their hands and feet where the road is wet and rough. Sometimes one of them pulls the cart while the other pushes it. In some of the Scotch mines girls formerly performed this work; but of late the laws do not allow women to work under ground.
Girls used to carry on their backs a basket fastened to a leather strap which passed around their foreheads. A lamp was attached to the strap, and in this way they carried their loads up the long ladders and through the inclines, sometimes a distance of several hundred feet. If a strap broke, a block of coal fell, or a bearer missed her footing, those below were seriously hurt, and many fatal accidents occurred. This primitive mode of raising coal was abolished by law. The owners of the mines had become so careless in regard to the management of their laborers that the government was obliged to interfere.
The shaft is frequently called the miners’ tomb; and it is said that the Belgians have intentionally named it The Grave La Fosse).
In some mines, so many accidents have occurred in the shaft, that the men never enter it without fear. Great improvements have been made in the mode of ascending or descending, and at the present day the apparatus is considered nearly perfect.
The first improvement for the protection of men ascending and descending, was to cover the tubs with a roof, or bonnet, so that falling materials would injure nobody. Besides this, the heads of the men are shielded by hats made of sheet iron or stout leather. An indicator is kept in front of the engine man, so that he knows precisely the position of the tub; and if there are two tubs in the shaft, one ascending and the other descending, he may know when they pass on their way. In some coal mines the tubs or cages are double-decked, and some of them have four tiers or decks.
A novelty in the way of carrying coal may be seen at the Harewood coal mine, at Nanaimo, British Columbia. The mines are situated at a considerable elevation above the sea-level, and the intermediate ground is covered with trees and rocks, while several deep ravines intercept the grounds. Under such circumstances, the construction of a railway would be costly and require much time, as several viaducts would be required, and the road at some places would have to make considerable curves. The proprietor of the mines therefore decided to avoid all these difficulties, on putting up a wire tramway in a direct line from the mine to the port, by means of which the ravines could be spanned without expense, and the timber on the ground could be converted into the necessary posts.
There are in all ninety-seven posts, put up to such a height that the wire spanned over them forms a softly inclining plane. The distance between them is from 150 to 250 feet. The wire rope is of the best crucible steel, specially made for the purpose, and is 6-1/2 miles in length; each post having a pair of groove-pulleys two feet in diameter, over which the wire moves. The rope is driven at the lower end by an engine of 20 horse-power, which is sufficient to drive the line when carrying 12 tons per hour.
Austin, Nevada, six thousand feet above the sea. The metropolis of the Reese river district. Silver first discovered at this point in July, 1862.