In July, at Rheims, there was to be the great flying meeting; and Farman had made up his mind to wait for this. Aided by the experience he had gained with the Voisin machine, he had designed a craft which should be generally more efficient and faster in flight, and more quickly responsive to its controls. The biplane he produced, marking as it did a step forward in construction, is a machine that needs description. The general appearance of the craft is indicated by Fig. 46, while an illustration of this type of machine in flight will be found on Plate VII. A feature of the Voisin that Farman discarded was the vertical panel fitted between the main-planes to give sideway stability. An objection to these planes was that they added to the weight of the machine and checked its speed, tending also to drive it from its course should there be a side wind. But in taking away such fixed balancing-planes, Farman had to substitute another device; and what he did was to work upon the same theory as the Wrights had done, and obtain a similar result in a different way. They, it will be remembered, had warped the rear portions of their main-planes. Farman kept his planes rigid, but fitted to their rear extremities four narrow, hinged planes, or flaps, which could be moved up and down and were called ailerons. Their effect was the same as with the Wright wing-warp. When a gust tilted the machine, the pilot drew down the ailerons upon the side that was inclined downward; whereupon the air-pressure, acting upon the drawn-down surfaces, restored the machine to an even keel.
C. Pilot’s seat;
D. Motor and propeller;
E. Petrol tank;
F.F. Hinged balancing-planes, or ailerons;
H.H. Twin vertical rudders;
I. Landing wheels and skid
showing the span of main-planes, elevator, and tail, also the positions of landing gear and pilot’s seat.
Of famous aeroplanes at Rheims, five types stood out by themselves—the Farman, the Voisin, the Wright, the Bleriot, and the Antoinette, all of which have been described. But there was one other, which few people had heard of before it appeared here. This was the Curtiss biplane, built by an American named Glenn H. Curtiss, and engined with a motor which also bore his name. Curtiss had experimented with many power-driven machines—motor-cycles, motor-cars, airships, and aeroplanes—and had won a prize in America with a small, light biplane, and it was a craft of this type—as seen in the figure —that he brought with him to Rheims, his idea being to compete for the speed prize. The machine had a front elevator and tail-planes, according to the practice in biplane construction; but an innovation was the setting of the ailerons midway between the main-planes—a position that will be noted in the sketch; another novelty was the way these ailerons operated. At the pilot’s back, as he sat in his driving seat, was an upright rod with two shoulder-pieces—by means of which, should he shift his body, he could swing the rod from side to side. Wires ran from the rod to the ailerons; and if the pilot leaned over, say, to the right, he drew down the ailerons on the left side of the machine. The merit of such a control was that it was instinctive; that is to say, should the biplane tip down on one side, it was natural for the pilot to lean away from the plane-ends that were sinking; and he operated the ailerons automatically, as he did this, and so brought the machine level again.
B. Pilot’s seat and control-wheel
E. Motor and propeller
F. Tail-plane and rudder.
The Curtiss Biplane making a turn
There needs to be an equipment of spare machines also; and a number of travelling workshops with skilled engineers, which can be rushed from place to place for the repair of damaged craft. A sketch of one of these workshops on wheels, which are vital to the organisation, is seen in the figure
At the beginning of 1909 there were two types of successful aeroplane—the Wright and the Voisin. Bleriot had flown with his monoplane and flown well; but he was still in the process of evolving a practical machine, and several other inventors were in a similar stage. It was the Wright and the Voisin which had proved their worth; and the Wright, as has been said, was the better of the two. Of the Voisin, as flown in 1909, a reproduction is given in the figure. It was a heavier aeroplane than the Wrights’, owing largely to the weight of its alighting gear (250 lbs.) and of its big balancing tail (more than 100 lbs.); hence the necessity for using a 50-h.p. motor, which drove a two-bladed metal propeller at the rate of 1200 revolutions a minute. The Voisin brothers, and other French makers, did not approve of the two-propeller system of the Wrights: they preferred one screw, revolving at high speed. But there was no doubt—at any rate in this stage of aviation—that the Wright method was more efficient than that of the Frenchmen. It was calculated, indeed, that the Wright biplane, when actually in the air, could be driven at an expenditure of only 15 h.p.; whereas the Voisin, even with its 50-h.p. motor running at full speed, had only just enough power to fly.
A. Elevating plane
B. Pilot’s seat
D. Engine and propeller
E. Landing chassis
F. Balancing tail
The Voisin Biplane - top view
A fighting aeroplane
A. Machine-gun projecting from opening in bow
B. Gunner’s position
C. Pilot’s seat
D.D. Side windows for observation
E. Engine and propeller.
D. Pilot’s seat
E. Landing chassis
F. Combined tail and elevating-planes
The Bleriot Monoplane - top view showing its bird-like shape and the position of the pilot.
At the beginning of 1909 a new monoplane made its appearance in France—a powerful, finely constructed, and very stable machine. It was the Antoinette, designed by a famous engineer, and it was this craft which interested Latham. M. Levavasseur was the designer of it and of a specially lightened motor, first applied to motor-boats, and afterwards to the experimental biplane of M. Santos-Dumont and also to the aeroplane with which Farman first flew. The Antoinette, which M. Levavasseur also fitted with one of his motors, was a large monoplane—far larger than the Bleriot; and built not with the idea of being a fair-weather machine, but to fly in winds. The span of its wings was 46 feet, and they contained 365 square feet of sustaining surface, while the total weight was 1040 lbs.
D. Pilot’s seat and controlling wheel
E.E. Vertical rudders
G. Landing gear.
showing the spread of the planes and tail, and the delicate taper of the long, canoe-shaped body.
The Curtiss Biplane in flight
showing the chassis and the position between the planes of the two ailerons (A.A.).
Another ardent worker in England, and one destined to become famous, was Mr. S. F. Cody. After developing a system of man-lifting kites which the British War Office acquired, he joined the military aircraft factory that had been established at Farnborough. Here, after tests with dirigible balloons, he began the construction of experimental biplanes—all machines of large size. Early in 1909 he made brief flights—the longest being one of about 250 yards. Then, after alterations to his machine, he managed in July to fly a distance of 4 miles. This he increased afterwards to 8 miles; and then on 1st September flew for 1 hour 3 minutes, rising to a height of 300 feet. Cody’s biplane was a very large machine, having 1000 square feet of lifting surface—twice that of the Farman or Voisin. Driving it was an 80-h.p. engine, which operated two propellers on the system used by the Wrights. With its pilot on board the machine weighed 2170 lbs.
A. Elevating-planes and vertical-plane
B. Pilot’s control lever
G. Landing gear
H. Rear skid.
showing the large size of the elevators, the position of the pilot, and the placing of the propellers.
But as airships were built larger, and greater speeds were obtained, it became necessary to strengthen the envelopes with some form of keel; and this led to a type which is known as the semi-rigid, and is developed successfully in France. The figure illustrates an airship of this build. Along the lower side of its envelope is placed a light, rigid framework or keel, and from this is suspended the car which contains engines and crew.
A. Gas-containing envelope
B. Strengthening keel
E. Car carrying engines, propeller, and crew.
When petrol engines became available, they gave an impetus to the building of airships; for, like the aeroplane, the airship needed a motive agent which gives a high power for a low weight. One of the first to use a petrol motor in an airship with success was M. Santos-Dumont, whose name has been mentioned in connection with aeroplanes. He tested small, light airships, driven by petrol engines and two-bladed propellers—as illustrated in figure; and with one of these, on a calm, still day, he flew over Paris and round the Eiffel Tower.
A. Gas envelope
B. Wheeled framework which carried motor, propeller, and pilot’s seat
D. Horizontal rear-plane
Coal-gas superseded hot air in the filling of balloons, the latter being unsatisfactory, seeing that it cooled rapidly and allowed the balloon to descend; the only alternative being to do what some of the first aeronauts did, and burn a fire below the neck of their balloon even when in the air. But the dangers of this were great, seeing that the whole envelope might easily become ignited. With balloons filled with coal-gas long flights were possible, but they had always this disadvantage—the voyagers were at the mercy of the wind, and could not fly in any direction they might choose. If the wind blew from the north then they were driven south, the balloon being a bubble in the air, wafted by every gust. Aeronauts became disgusted with this inability to guide the flight of a balloon, and many quaint controls were tested; such, for example, as the use of a large pair of oars with which the balloonist, sitting in the car of his craft, rowed vigorously in the air.
...it was followed in due course by the use of small steam engines and electric motors, which were made to turn propellers such as are used in aeroplanes. For such experimental craft, the rounded form of gas-container was abandoned and a cigar-shaped envelope adopted, pointed at both ends, which could be more easily driven through the air. An airship of a crude and early type is seen here. It was built by an experimenter named Gifford, and in 1852 it flew at the rate of seven miles an hour.
A. Gas-containing envelope; B. Car suspended below envelope, which carried the aeronaut and a 3-horse-power steam engine; C. Two-bladed propeller driven by the engine; D. Rudder (in the form of a sail) by which the machine could be steered from side to side.
Wherever there are real roads in Mexico, there you may see the quaint old-fashioned ox-carts with wheels often made from solid blocks of wood cut to shape. Two oxen are generally yoked to each, but when heavy loads are to be dragged, four, six, or even more are used at once.
They have caps on their heads, and fishermen and herders may be distinguished by the style of these. Fishermen’s caps are pointed, while those of herders are square. In going out over the snow in winter, Lapps have long, narrow runners of wood fastened to their feet, and carry a pole in their hand. These runners are five feet or more in length, and only a few inches wide, and on them—aided by their poles—the Lapps glide along finely over the hard snow.
The Turkomans live in large, round, wall tents: the light framework of poles is covered with great pieces of felt. This felt is beaten by the women 63from sheep’s wool and camel’s hair. They are comfortable within. The floor is often covered with fine rugs or skins, and handsome woven stuffs are hung upon the wall or thrown over the sitting places. These fine articles are partly woven by the women and partly stolen from passing caravans—for the Turkomans are dreadful pillagers.
Camel and palanquin [covered canopy - usually refers to a covered litter carried by men ]
The Basques, especially those living in the mountains, are proud, happy, and independent. They are easily angered and quick to fight. They love their old life and customs and dislike changes. They still use many old-fashioned things such as the clumsy ox-cart, with great, solid wooden wheels and heavy wooden axle. The old dress has disappeared in many places, but is picturesque. Men wear rather loose and baggy trousers, a close-fitting vest, a sort of blouse or jacket that reaches only to the waist, a wide, white collar turned down over the neck of the blouse, and a loose necktie with streaming ends. They wear a loose cap jauntily on the head. Men and women both delight in bright colors.
We present a bicycle for ladies, lately invented and patented by Messrs. Pickering & Davis of New York City. It will be seen that the reach or frame, instead of forming a nearly straight line from the front swivel to the hind axle, follows the curve of the front wheel until it reaches a line nearly as low as the hind axle when it runs horizontally to that point of the hind wheel. The two wheels being separated three or four inches, allow of an upright rod being secured to the reach; around this is a spiral spring, on which a comfortable, cane-seated, willow-backed chair is placed. This machine, with a moderate-sized wheel (of thirty to thirty-three inches), will allow being driven with a great deal of comfort and all the advantages of the two-wheel veloce. In mounting, a lady has to step over the reach, at a point only twelve inches from the floor, the height of an ordinary step in a flight of stairs.
We present an engraving of an English one-wheeled velocipede. The feet are placed on short stilts, connected with the cranks, one on either side of the rim, while the rider sits upon a steel spring saddle over the whole wheel. The inventor modestly limits the diameter of the wheel to twelve feet, and the number of revolutions to fifty per minute. Twenty-five miles per hour is the speed expected to be reached. The riders of this machine, without the ability to overcome the laws of gravity, would be very likely to get broken bones and noses. It is not likely to come into general use.
HEMMING'S UNICYCLE, or "FLYING YANKEE VELOCIPEDE."
The single-wheeled velocipede has at length received a palpable body, and " a local habitation and a name." Richard C. Hemming of New Haven, Conn., invented the machine herewith represented, two years ago; but has only recently brought it into the market and applied it to practical purposes.. The main wheel has a double rim, or has two concentric rims, the inner face of the inner one having a projecting lip for keeping the friction rollers and the friction driver in place; each of these being correspondingly grooved on their peripheries. The frame on which the rider sits, sustains these friction wheels in double parallel arms, on the front one of which is mounted a double pulley, with belts passing to small pulleys on the axis of the driving wheel. This double wheel driven, as seen, by cranks turned by the hands. The friction of the lower wheel on the surface of the inner rim of the main wheel is the immediate means of propulsion. A small binding wheel, seen between the rider's legs, serves to keep the bands or belts tight. The steering is effected either by inclining the body to one side or the other, or by the foot impinging on the ground, the stirrups being hung low for this purpose. By throwing the weight on these stirrups, the binding wheel may be brought more powerfully down on the belts. Over the rider's head is an awning, and there is also a shield in front of his body to keep the clothes from being soiled by mud and wet. When going forward, the driving wheel is kept slightly forward of the centre of gravity by the position of the rider. By this means the power exerted is comparatively small. Every turn of the crank is equivalent to a rotation of the great wheel. Mr. Hemming says that this machine can be manufactured for fifty dollars, of a weight of only thirty pounds;- that it will ascend steep grades, and that it can be driven on the roads with but little exertion, at the rate of twenty or even twenty-five miles an hour. This wheel is of a diameter of from six to eight feet. Mr. Hemming's boy of thirteen has one five feet in diameter, the first manufactured, crude in construction, and heavier than necessary, which he propels at the rate of a mile in three minutes.
This velocipede was patented January 5th, 1869. It has been thoroughly tested and is pronounced a complete success. It will be seen that it is very different from Bradford's machine. The front wheels are used as guiding wheels, the rear as the driving ones. It is propelled by both hands and feet, acting together or separately. The propelling power is almost unlimited, and is furnished by cranks in the hind axles, with lever attachments. It has three different steering arrangements, either of which can be applied, according to the taste of the purchaser.
In all these, the forward wheel and axle are turned with a lever arrangement, operated upon by the band.
The machine develops both chest and limbs, and can be readily used by ladies and children. A little girl of six years has ridden it for an hour without fatigue. It is so constructed, that scruples of delicacy need prevent no lady from driving it. It can be driven either backwards or forwards, will run upon the road, at the rate of fifteen miles an hour, and will ascend any ordinary hill with ease. It is claimed, that it is the only machine made that can be checked in going down hill, or that can be stopped instantly.
The machine varies in size and weight. That most in favor, has a wheel of three feet and a half in diameter, and a weight of about one hundred pounds. It is constructed of the best material, and is neat and nobby in appearance. Its price is $125.
If any of our readers desire the luxury of a ride on a velocipede without the necessity of taking lessons, or the danger of getting a fall, they will find " Bradford's Four-Wheeled Velocipede" ready and able to afford them the pleasure. The inventor of this vehicle, Mr. C. K. Bradford, has devoted the greater part of the last five years to experiments upon the velocipede, and took out his first patent three years and a half ago. The machine, as now constructed and improved, obtained its American patent October 13th, 1868. It has since been patented in England, France, and Belgium. It is made of the best material, and finished like a gentleman's trotting wagon. It weighs but sixty-five pounds, and combines in a high degree both lightness and strength. Any man, woman or child, can learn to guide it easily with but a few moments practice. The inventor claims that it is able to maintain a speed of a mile in three minutes, and that the extraordinary time of a half mile in one minute and forty-five seconds, has been made upon a country road. It can be driven by almost any man, at the rate of a mile in four minutes, on almost any road, without greater exertion than is ordinarily used in walking. This velocipede, unlike all others, is seen to best advantage on the street. In Mr. Bradford's tasteful little curricle, the rider can sit at ease as carelessly as in a carriage, giving himself up wholly to the exhilaration of the rapid movement, and the pleasurable exercise of the muscles, which is just enough to make the machine skim over the ground, and give an enjoyable sense of power. The increase of friction, which would naturally result from the additional number of wheels, is prevented by an application of anti-friction rollers, which reduce the labor of propelling the machine to a minimum, a requisite of the highest importance to a person seeking either recreation or utility.
As will be seen from the accompanying engraving, "Pickering's American Velocipede," manufactured by Messrs. Pickering & Davis, differs very materially from the French model, so generally used by other manufacturers. It is claimed that it is more simple and durable, lighter and stronger.
The reach or frame of this velocipede is made of hydraulic tubing. The gun-metal bearings are so attached that, when worn, they may be replaced by others, which are interchangeable like the parts of sewing-machines and fire-arms. The axle is so constructed as to constitute, in itself, an oil box. It is made tubular, and closed at either end with a screw, on the removal of which it is filled with lard oil.
Cotton lamp-wick is placed loosely in the tubular axle and the oil is by this means fed to the bearing, as fast as required, through the small holes made for the purpose in the centre of the axle. The saddle is supported on a spiral spring, giving an elastic seat; it is brought well back, so that the rider maintains an erect position, and is adjustable to suit the length of limb of the rider. The tiller or steering handle is constructed with a spring so that the hands are relieved from the jolting that they would otherwise receive while running over rough ground. The stirrups or crank pedals, are three-sided, with circular flanges at each end, fitted to turn on the crank pins, so that the pressure of the foot will always bring one of the three sides into proper position. They are so shaped as to allow of the use of the forepart of the foot, bringing the ankle joint into play, relieving the knee, and rendering propulsion easier than when the shank of the foot alone is used. The connecting apparatus differs from that of the French vehicle in that the saddle bar serves only as a seat and brake, and is not attached to the rear wheel. By a simple pressure forward against the tiller, and a backward pressure against the tail of the saddle, the saddle spring is compressed, and the brake attached to it brought firmly down against the wheel. Messrs. Pickering & Davis have a large manufactory, and are the constant recipients of orders from all parts of the country. Mr. Pickering has always been a practical machinist, and personally superintends the structure of each machine turned out.
The accompanying engraving will convey to the mind of the reader a correct idea of the French two-wheeled velocipede. The majority of makers in this country fashion their machine upon this pattern in every essential respect. We append a full technical description.
A is the front wheel. This is the steering wheel, and upon its axis, the power is applied. B is the hind wheel; C, the treadles or foot-pieces ; D, the treadle cranks; E, slots in cranks, by which to adjust the foot-pieces and accommodate the length to the legs of the rider; F, bifurcated jaw, the lower part of which forms the bearing for the axle of the front wheel. From the upper part of this jaw, a rod or pivot extends, to which is attached the steering arm or handle F; G, the reach or perch, extending from the jaw of the front wheel to the rear or hind wheel. This reach is bifurcated, forming jaws for the hind wheel. H, " rests" on the front part of the reach. The rider puts one leg on the rest and works one of the cranks with the other leg while riding " side-saddle," or a leg may be placed upon each rest when the velocipede has acquired sufficient momentum, and the rider does not wish to keep his feet upon the treadles. I, the saddle or seat, which is adjustable on the seat-spring L, by the thumb-screw K. The seat-spring L, is attached at M to the reach G, which, at the other end, is fastened to the spring-struts N, that rise from the reach G; 0, the brake-lever, on the fulcrum P; Q,, the " shoe " of the brake that acts against the periphery of the hind wheel. The brake is operated by means of the cord S, one end of which is attached to the steering handle F, and the other end to the reach at 3. A cord passes from the steering handle under the pulley or roller 4, thence over the pulley 5, on the brake-lever 0, and from there to the point 3, where it is attached to the reach G. The brake is operated by giving a slight turning motion to the handle F, thus winding a small sheave upon the axis of the handle, and bring-ing the shoe Q, of the brake-lever 0, in contact with the surface of the wheel B.
Of the various kinds of velocipedes, four, three, two, and one wheeled, the bicycle seems to be considered the most artistic, is altogether the most in favor, and steadily maintains its ground against all rivals. Whether it will be the model velocipede of the future remains to be seen. The various experiments now being tried will, no doubt, eventually result in a nearly perfect machine, but it will require a season's experience fully to develop the ingenuity of our American artisans. Many have expressed doubts as to the real utility of the velocipede, and the permanency of its use. They seem to think it a frivolous invention only calculated to serve purposes of amusement, and soon to be superseded by some other ephemeral claimant for popularity. Most of these have based their opinions upon the disuse into which rude machines have fallen in former times. But the difference in the construction of the modern velocipede from the primitive one has entirely changed the character of the vehicle. It is no longer a draft vehicle, but a locomotive, and as much superior to the original bar on wheels, as the improved steam locomotive is to the old-time stage-coach.
The article upon the Velocipede in the " American Encyclopedia," commences by giving the well-known derivation of the word from the Latin velox, swift, and pes, a foot, and defines it as a carriage, by means of which the rider propels himself along the ground, and states that it was invented at Manheim.
Greek merchant ship
An early primitive sledge
A singular instance of the wagon and funeral-boat in combination has been found on the bandage of a mummy, now preserved in the collection of S. d'Athanasi.
It is supposed by some modern authors
that Herodotus, in speaking of the religious ceremonies in honor of Mars, as performed in the city of Pampremis, refers to this vehicle. Among other things, he tells us that the priests placed an image in a wooden temple, gilded all over, which they carried to a sacred dwelling; "then the few who were left about the image draw a four-wheeled carriage containing the temple and the image."
A very showy affair is found in the next illustra-tion, rivaling the mourning equipages of modern times. Among other figures appear emblems of stability and security on the side panels. In this instance the undertaker removed a portion of the paneling so as to expose the head of the mummy-case. It would seem from this, that the modern practice of showing a coffin through a glass side is of great antiquity. Indeed, we seldom find anything new that has not an antiquarian origin, thus verifying the words of the wise man, "There is no new thing under the sun."
In one instance, as in the figure, taken from a tomb in Thebes, — an attendant is shown, pouring some kind of a liquid from a jar upon the ground, over which the sledge is drawn, to facilitate its progress. Examples of this nature are frequently seen in Egyptian bass-reliefs, depicting the removal of heavy loads. On this sledge-hearse the mummy-case, enclosing the corpse, is distinctly observed. With characteristic tenderness, two females steady the mummy as it moves along over the rough surface of the ground; the priest, meanwhile, mounted in front, scroll in hand, recites a panegyric, or perhaps delivers a funeral oration in honor of the dead.
It need not be inferred from what we have written that all bodies were hidden away in the tomb. On the contrary, many were consumed on the funeral pile, some were buried in the earth, while others again, after they had come from the embalmer's shop, were kept in the house for years, until finally they were deposited in the catacombs. The mourning for a good king lasted the space of seventy days, during which the people sang hymns commemorating his virtues, reading their garments, and covering their heads with mud and dust, some three hundred persons of both sexes coming together twice each day to publicly sing a funeral dirge, the entire nation abstaining from meat and other dainties during the whole time. On the last day of mourning, or in some instances many months afterward, the time for sepulture arrived. Supposing that an embalmed king is to be laid away, perhaps in a tomb on which a lifetime of preparation has been bestowed, the body is now brought out from the closet, where it has been carefully stored since the funeral ceremonies were performed, and given to the undertaker, who comes with a sledge-hearse, as shown in the engraving.
The several figures are thus arranged: in the center appear the sacred cows, decked with elegant blankets and ornamental head and neck gear, which last (of a peculiar pattern) is found attached to the heads of all female animals, in Egyptian bass-reliefs, drag-ropes in this case being fastened to the horns, evidently " more for ornament than use," two attendants furnishing the motive-power, while the third acts as conductor. In the foreground are four more representatives of the genus homo. First, we notice the priest, as indicated by the peculiarity of his dress. He appears in the act of anointing the dead body with sacred oil, or some other liquid, from a vessel of peculiar shape. Just in front of the priest, squatting near the earth, we find a mercenary mourner, her hair disheveled, her breasts exposed, and her hands fixed in the position most expressive of grief, no doubt crying as sincerely as in hired mourning it has ever been done. Around the third figure centers the greatest interest, since it represents the dead dressed in cerements for the tomb, to which the body is now about to be carried. The fourth, supporting the corpse in a leaning position, represents an attendant, who, in all probability, officiates both as priest and undertaker.
Horse and buggy in a snowstorm
Messrs. Forest and Son received a design and order for the construction of a steel boat 28 ft. long, 6 ft. beam, and 2 ft. 6 in. deep. It was to be built of Siemens steel galvanized, and divided into twelve sections, each weighing about 75 lbs. The fore and aft sections were to be decked and watertight, to give buoyancy in case of accident.
Horse looking at a bicycle
Conductor asking passenger for the fare
Femme-de-la-cour (Lady of the Court) and foundling
Man and wife about to go away in the bridal car
An aeroplane is a necessity in times of peace
It was on June 5, 1783 that Stephen and Joseph Montgolfier, two French brothers, sent up the first balloon. You can just imagine the amazement it caused when it arose from the ground.
Some types of American and foreign aeroplanes
Some types of American and foreign aeroplanes
Pilot and passenger
Fast mail-carrying aeroplanes will make postal deliveries everywhere
Just below Widdin, at the Bulgarian town of Arčer Palanka, the general course of the Danube changes from the south to the east; and to the town of Cernavoda, in the Dobrudscha, about 300 miles below, the river keeps the latter direction with few and slight deviations. The long, straight reaches were here enlivened by many sailing-vessels of the fifteenth-century type, with high ornate sterns, and single mast set midway between the bow and stern. Sometimes we met them gayly ploughing their way up-stream, with every bellying sail drawing full, and again we saw them dragged slowly against the current by a long line of patient Turkish sailors harnessed to a tow-rope; or else we came across them tied to the trees in some quiet spot awaiting a favorable wind, the decks covered with sleeping sailors, no man on watch.
Turkish Sailing Lotka, Sulina
Our afternoon cruise was not further remarkable except for the sight of various immense ferry-boats swinging across the stream attached to wire guys and bearing two great loads of hay, cattle and all, and for a visit to Ingolstadt, a military post of great importance and correspondingly unattractive aspect.
On the Tile-boat
Bulgarian Buffalo Cart
Rear elevation of Pioneer and detail of valve shifter; valve face and valve. (Drawing by J. H. White.)
Diagram comparing the Pioneer (shaded drawing) with the Columbia, a standard 8-wheel engine of 1851. (Drawing by J. H. White.)
Hudson River Railroad
Lowell Machine Shop, 1852
Wt. 271/2 tons (engine only)
Cyl. 161/2 x 22 inches
Wheel diam. 84 inches
Cumberland Valley Railroad
Seth Wilmarth, 1851
81/2 x 14 inches
The “Fury,” built for the Boston and Worcester Railroad in 1849 by Wilmarth. It was known as a “Shanghai” because of its great height.
“Pioneer” locomotive. (Drawing by J. H. White.)
(1) Safety valve,
(2) spring balance,
(3) steam jet
(4) dry pipe
(5) throttle lever
(7) crown bar
(8) front tube sheet
(9) check valve
(10) top rail
(11) rear-boiler bracket
(13) rocker bearing
(16) bottom rail
(17) pump heater valve
(18) cylinder lubricator
(19) reversing lever
(20) brake shoe
(21) mud ring
(22) blowoff cock
(Drawing by J. H. White.)
Patent Iron Suspension Railroad Bridge.
The undersigned would inform the officers of Railroads and others, that he is prepared to furnish Drawings and Estimates for Bridges, Roofs, etc., on the plan of Bollman’s Patent.
The performance of these bridges, some of which have been in use for six years, has given entire satisfaction. Their simplicity of construction renders repairs easy and cheap, and by a peculiar connection of the Main and Panel Rods at the bottom of the Posts, all danger from the effects of expansion, which has heretofore been the chief objection to Iron Bridges, is entirely removed.
J. H. TEGMEYER,
Description of first trip in the car
When I got this car ready to run one night, I took it out and I had a young fellow with me; I thought I might need him to help push in case the car didn't work…. We ran from the area of the shop where it was built down on Taylor Street. We started out and ran up Worthington Street hill, on top of what you might call "the Bluff" in Springfield. Then we drove along over level roads from there to the home of Mr. Markham , and there we refilled this tank with water. [At this point he was asked if it was pretty well emptied by then.] Yes, I said in my account of it that when we got up there the water was boiling furiously. Well, no doubt it was. We refilled it and then we turned it back and drove down along the Central Street hill and along Maple, crossed into State Street, dropped down to Dwight, went west along Dwight to the vicinity where we had a shed that we could put the car in for the night. During that trip we had run, I think, just about six miles, maybe a little bit more. That was the first trip with this vehicle. It was the first trip of anything more than a few hundred yards that the car had ever made.
One day, when Handel was seven years old, his father announced his intention of paying a visit to the castle of the Duke of Saxe-Weissenfels. Handel was most anxious to be allowed to accompany his father, because he had heard that the Duke kept a great company of musicians to perform in his chapel. But the father refused his consent, and the boy turned away with a look of fixed determination in his eyes. 'I will go, even if I have to run every inch of the way!'
Handel did not know then that forty miles lay between his home and the castle, but having formed his bold resolution he awaited the moment when his father set forth on his journey, and then, running behind the closed carriage, he did his best to keep pace with it. The roads were long and muddy, and although he panted on bravely for a long distance, the child's strength began at last to fail, and, fearing that he would be left behind, he called to the coachman to stop. At the sound of the boy's voice his father thrust his head out of the window, and was about to give vent to his anger at George's disobedience; but a glance at the poor little bedraggled figure in the road, with its pleading face, melted the surgeon's heart. They were at too great a distance from home to turn back, and so Handel was lifted into the carriage and carried to Weissenfels, where he arrived tired and footsore, but supremely happy at having won his point.
Phantom illustration of Benz' first automobile.
(From Carl Benz, Father of the Automobile Industry, by L. M. Fanning, New York, 1955.)
Illustration from U.S. patent 385087,
issued to Carl Benz, showing the horizontal plane
of the flywheel, a feature utilized by the Duryeas in their machine.
The conveyance of a Persian official traveling in disgrace to Teheran at the call of the shah