The power of muscle varies as its cross-section. For human muscles the maximum lift amounts to from 7 to 10 kilogrammes for each square centimetre. This is a large figure, but it must be remembered that, owing to the arrangement of the bones as levers, most muscles act at a great mechanical disadvantage. The greater the difference in distance from the fulcrum between the point of application of the force and the point of incidence of the weight, when the force acts nearer to the fulcrum than the weight, the greater is the mechanical disadvantage. The greater also is the rapidity with which the weight is lifted. What is lost in strength is gained in swiftness
A, An ivory button which is pressed on the skin over the radial artery by a metal spring.
B, A continuous screw which works against the cogwheel
C. By rotating B, the lever
D is raised to a position in which its point scratches the travelling-plate
E (covered with blackened paper).
F, A box containing clockwork which moves E.
G, A screw by means of which the pressure of the spring is adjusted to the force of the pulse.
A U-tube contains mercury, on which floats a rod supporting a scratching point, which makes a “tracing” on blackened paper wrapped round a revolving drum. Between the manometer and the cannula which is introduced into the central end of a cut artery is a three-way cock, which leads to a pressure-bottle containing a half saturated solution of sodic sulphate. This solution prevents blood from clotting. Before it is connected with the artery the apparatus is filled from the pressure-bottle. The cock is then turned into the second position, and the bottle raised until the mercury in the manometer stands at a level somewhat higher than that which it may be expected to attain under the influence of blood-pressure. The cannula being then inserted into an artery, the cock is turned into the third position, which places the manometer in connection with the blood, and excludes the pressure-bottle. As the mercury is a little higher than blood-pressure, some of the sodic sulphate solution enters the artery, but no blood enters the cannula. The scratching point, rising and falling with every variation in blood-pressure, makes a record on the soot-blackened paper, which is subsequently removed from the drum, and varnished.
A Section approximately at Right Angles to the Long Axis of the Heart, exposing the Four Valves which lie very nearly in the Same Plane.
The semilunar valve which guards the aperture of the pulmonary artery is the nearest to the breast-bone.
Chordæ tendineæ attach the margins of the auriculo-ventricular valves to musculi papillares which project from the inner aspect of each ventricle.
The Diaphragm and Organs in Contact with it—A, in Expiration;
B, at the End of a Deep Inspiration. Transverse Vertical Sections in the
Line of the Armpit.
A, At the end of an ordinary expiration the lung does not extend below the upper border of the eighth rib. From this level to the middle or lower border of the tenth rib the two layers of the pleura covering respectively the inner wall of the chest and the upper surface of the diaphragm are in contact.
B, When the lung is distended with air it occupies the whole of the pleural cavity.
Diagram of a Lobule of the Liver divided vertically through its Axis.
In its centre is a space, the intralobular vein, through which the blood falls into a branch of the hepatic vein, on its way to the heart. An interlobular branch of the portal vein, which brings the blood from the digestive organs, pours it by many smaller vessels over the surface of the lobule. It filters into the lobule through innumerable pseudo-capillary vessels, or spaces, between the radiating columns of liver-cells. Arterial blood is brought to the lobule by a twig of the hepatic artery. Bile is drained away from it by an affluent of the hepatic duct. In the lower part of the diagram seven liver-cells are shown, forming a divided column, magnified about 300 diameters. The cells are loaded with glycogen, and contain minute globules of fat. Red blood-corpuscles and two leucocytes are seen between the columns of liver-cells. One of the leucocytes has ingested two blood-corpuscles.
The stomach has been cut across a short distance from the pyloric valve, and removed, to show the viscera which lie behind it. The descending aorta and the vena cava rest upon the vertebral column. They are crossed by the pancreas and the transverse portion of the duodenum. The head of the pancreas is enclosed by the curvatures of the duodenum. The ducts of the liver and pancreas are seen entering the descending duodenum side by side.
A Minute Portion of the Pulp of the Spleen,very highly magnified.
Stellate connective-tissue cells form spaces containing red blood-corpuscles and leucocytes. In the centre of the diagram is shown the mode of origin of a venule. It contains two phagocytes—the upper with a nucleus, two blood-corpuscles just ingested, and one partially digested in its body-substance; the lower with two blood-corpuscles.
A, the most common type, highly amœboid and phagocytic. Its protoplasm is finely granular, its nucleus multipartite.
B, a leucocyte closely similar to the last, but larger, and containing an undivided nucleus. It is shown with a cluster of particles of soot in its body-substance.
C, a young leucocyte, or “lymphocyte.”
D, a coarsely granular leucocyte. Its granules stain brightly with acid dyes—e.g., eosin or acid fuchsin.
The ribs from the first to the tenth have been cut across in the lateral line. The eleventh and twelfth ribs do not reach sufficiently far forwards to be cut. With the exception of a short segment near its junction with the ascending colon, the small intestine has been removed. The trachea is seen to divide into bronchi beneath the arch of the aorta. The right lung has three, the left two lobes. The kidneys are situated behind all the other viscera. On their upper ends rest the two suprarenal capsules. The lower edge of the right lobe of the liver follows closely the line of the ribs and costal cartilages. Below the left lobe of the liver the stomach comes to the anterior abdominal wall. The transverse colon (large intestine) comes to the anterior wall below the stomach. Below the latter the wall is in contact chiefly with coils of small intestine. The vermiform appendix rests on the posterior wall. Spleen and pancreas are not shown in the diagram.
The drawing shows the folds of mucous membrane, the vocal cords, which stretch from the tips of the arytenoid cartilages to the recess behind the median portion of the thyroid cartilage. To the outer side of each vocal cord is seen the thyro-arytenoid muscle (cut across), consisting of a broad outer portion, chiefly concerned in closing the glottis during the act of swallowing, and a smaller internal portion, which regulates the length and the thickness of the segment of the cord allowed to vibrate.
All are formed on essentially the same plan; a fibrous capsule invests a group of epithelial cells amongst which a nerve ramifies. The simplest form is known as a Grandry’s corpuscle-a nerve ending in one or two plates between two or three epithelial cells. These organs are found in great numbers in the bills of aquatic birds. If a duck is watched whilst it is gobbling mud at the margin of a pond, it will be seen to have a remarkable capacity for discriminating between the shells of small snails, which it can crush, and stones, which it needs to drop from its bill. Its bill is also provided with small Pacinian corpuscles.
The spiral lamina, on the left of the drawing, gives attachment to the membrane of Corti, which stretches to the opposite wall. Below the membrane is a bloodvessel which runs its whole length beneath the tunnel of Corti. The tunnel is formed by pillars—the inner on the left, the outer on the right—which meet above it. On the left of the inner pillar is a hair-cell; to the left of this a nerve-cell with two nuclei. To the right of the outer pillar is a space; to the right of this four hair-cells alternating with four supporting cells, which hold up the reticulated membrane through apertures in which the tufts of hairs project. Three nerve-fibres are seen in the spiral lamina; they cross the tunnel to ramify between the rows of outer hair-cells. The lamina tectoria rests upon the tufts of hairs.
From right to left, the figure shows the concha and lobule of the ear in profile; the external meatus (abbreviated); the drum, divided vertically, its posterior half visible; the hammer-bone, with the tip of its long arm attached to the drum, an arrow indicating the point of attachment and line of action of the tensor tympani muscle; the anvil attached by a ligament to the bony wall of the middle ear; the stirrup, with its foot-plate almost filling the oval window; the labyrinth, with the three semicircular canals above, and the scala vestibuli below. The curled black line shows the situation of the scala media, or ductus cochleæ (which contains the organ of Corti). Pulsations of sound which move the membrana tympani are transmitted by the three bones to the oval window. They shake the perilymph, producing waves which travel along the scala vestibuli to the apex of the cochlea, whence they return by the scala tympani to the round window (if they do not take a shorter course through the ductus cochleæ). The Eustachian tube opens out of the lower part of the middle ear.
x, The common centre of curvature (nodal point of the several media). Rays which pass through this point are not deflected.
y, The principal focus of the system. All rays which are parallel to the optic axis converge to this point. The image of the point A is formed at a, the spot at which a ray parallel with the optic axis meets an unbent ray—the image of B at b.
A, after Exposure to Bright Light;
B, After Resting in the Dark.
The arrow shows the direction in which light traverses the retina.
C, Retinal epithelium, with its pigmented fringe. 1, Layer of rods and cones, separated by the external limiting membrane from 2, the layer of the nuclei of the rods and cones. 3, The ganglion-cells of the retina, which are homologous with the cells of the afferent root of a spinal nerve. Their peripheral axons ramify beneath the sensory epithelium (rods and cones and their nucleus-bearing segments), their central axons in 4, the inner molecular layer.
D, Collecting cells on the front of the retina; a a a, their axons which conduct impulses to the brain; b, an efferent fibre from the brain.
The slight depression in the retina in the axis of the globe is the fovea centralis, or yellow spot; the optic nerve pierces the ball to its inner or nasal side. The lens, with its suspensory ligament, separates the aqueous from the vitreous humour. On the front of the lens rests the iris, covered on its posterior surface with black pigment. On either side of the lens is seen a ciliary process, with the circular fibres of the ciliary muscle cut transversely, and its radiating fibres disposed as a fan.
These sense-organs are groups of elongated epithelial cells, set vertically to the surface. Their cells are of two kinds—the one fusiform, slender, bearing each a bristle-like process which projects through a minute pore left between the superficial cells of the general epithelium; the other thicker and wedge-shaped. Nerve-fibres are connected with the fusiform cells.
Sensory areas are enclosed by broken lines; certain centres in the association-zones are marked by dots. The sensory area of smell is on the inner aspect of the brain; so also is the area of vision which borders the calcarine and retrocalcarine fissures, and only rarely extends on to the external surface, as shown in the diagram. The sensory area of hearing is largely hidden within the fossa of Sylvius, the opening into which is indicated by the dark line above it. The kinæsthetic-sensory areas for the various muscles of the body occupy the territory between the dotted line in front and the bottom of the fissure of Rolando behind. They do not extend on to the posterior wall of this fissure. It is impossible at present to define the boundaries of any of the centres in the association-zones.
In its centre is a large clear spherical nucleus, with a nucleolus. The body-substance is prolonged into five dendrites and an axon. Neuro-fibrillæ are seen in dendrites and axon. They traverse the body of the cell in all directions, in little bundles which are separated by angular granules of stainable substance (tigroids).
Half a dozen nuclei of as yet undeveloped granules are seen lying beneath the pia mater. From this level to the bottom of the drawing granules are shown in successive stages of growth. These developing granules, selected from various preparations of the cortex of the cerebellum, were drawn from nature.
Pear-shaped cells are set round a felt-work of nerve-fibrils (neuropil). A neuro-sensory cell is shown with one fibre directed peripherally, branching on the surface; and one directed centrally, ramifying in the neuropil. Several very slender fibrils from the neuropil pass up the stalk of each ganglion-cell. They join a network near its surface. This net is connected by radiating fibrils with a coarser net which surrounds the nucleus. From the central net a relatively stout fibril passes to muscle-fibres.
Note the diagonal line in the small diagram of the figure below. It is actually straight, but the vertical lines which break it give it a “going-down-steps” appearance. This principle is used in the dress below—the two vertical panels of trimming break the line of the tunic and give the whole figure a more slender appearance than in the figure above.
Here trimming is used on two entirely different types of hats to give in each case added height to the figure and help in attaining a slenderizing appearance.
Left—Hats with medium brims and high trimming are often becoming, especially if wide enough to avoid the pyramid effect.
Right—High built trimming and delicate veils are advantageous where a double chin is the handicap.
These two examples show how even a hat with drooping brim, if not too wide, can be worn by the stout person if trimming is adeptly used to direct the vision upward and lend an illusion of height.
Would you believe that the pattern of these two dresses is exactly the same? This illustrates how you can vary a dress once you find the foundation lines that are becoming to you. One pattern can suffice for both a tailored and an afternoon dress, as you see both effects are pleasing in their slenderness.
Here a small all-over pattern minimizes size, the plaits and tassels lengthen, the necklace adds a slenderizing touch. The appearance as a whole is graceful and youthful.
These two pictures illustrate improper and proper choice of fabrics for a stout figure. Above, the large-figured material adds size, the fur trim shortens, the round beads shorten the neck. All conspire to emphasize weight.
Hats and shoes in these two pictures also illustrate incorrect and correct choice. The wide hat and prominent straps below emphasize width and weight; the neat hat and cross-strap slippers here help to slenderize
When styles call for plaits, plaits may be used, but not in widening flares as shown here, rather in slenderizing length lines as shown below
The oblique line in the figure is made to seem longer and more graceful than the dress below by the parallel vertical lines of embroidery which intersect it and so emphasize its appearance of length and grace.
Now see how the woman in the other picture has unknowingly emphasized her stoutness while the one in this picure has properly gained a slender effect by using trimming in accordance with the principles of these optical illusions.
The middle lines in the two small diagrams are the same length. But on the left, shorter accompanying lines seem to shorten the one between. On the right longer accompanying lines seem to lengthen the one between.
Now note how these same principles used in the dresses above effect the apparent size and weight of those wearing them, making one seem much stouter than the other.
These two diamond-shaped figures are exactly the same size. The crosswise line makes one seem wider, the vertical line makes the other seem narrower.
Here, also, are two vertical parallel lines. They are straight—test them—but the other lines radiating from the center, make them appear “bowed.” In the dress above a similar design makes the wearer appear stouter and heavier than she really is.
These unbroken parallel vertical lines give the definite impression of height. This principle, used in the design of the dress above, lends it a pleasing slender appearance because no other lines interfere with the straight line effect.
These two illusions are almost duplicated in the dresses above. As a result one woman looks shorter and heavier, the other taller and slenderer than she really is.
The two vertical lines are exactly the same length—measure them and see. Short lines turned back at either end make one seem short; extended lines make the other seem longer.